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Zygote - fertilized egg, a single-celled stage of embryo development the Greatest irony of biology that the human body is one of the most complex entity in the Universe has a very simple beginning. An adult made up of millions of millions of cells. There are ten times more than the stars in our galaxy, or, to give a more earthly comparison, ten times more than grains of sand on a small beach. All this huge number of cells piled haphazardly, but are organized in a complex structure, and despite the long history of anatomical studies, we still don't know all the details of their structure. There are hundreds of types of cells, and each has its own function and their way of life, while the cells of each specific type appear and are updated in the right...

, the Space of Klein-Kaluza the day before his death, Einstein asked that he filed his latest calculations on the unified field theory. For thirty years he fruitlessly attempted to modify General relativity to include the electromagnetic force. One of the most promising options came to Einstein in 1919, at the beginning of his quest, while he was sorting mail. The idea came to his mind, not directly, but through a letter from one beggar mathematician named Theodor Kaluza. In the letter Einstein found the proposition of how to combine the electromagnetic force with gravity. This theory was one little oddity. Einstein wrote in response: "the Idea of creating a unified theory] by means of five-dimensional cylindrical world never crossed my mind...

Fig.1. Electric eel Electrophorus electricus — the inhabitant of the turbid waters of the Amazon and Orinoco Fish moves in waves curving body, or at least the tail. And if she floats like a broom, working mainly in the anal fin, is most likely an electric fish, and it is better to stay away from her, especially from the acne. The South American electric eel Electrophorus electricus — a fearsome predator (Fig. 1). Adult fish generates a discharge voltage in hundreds of volts, creating around the eel's strong electric field. This is enough to immobilize large prey and to protect themselves from other predator. People from the ranks of acne very rarely die because of a small current (about 1 A) and short pulse: it lasts only 1 MS, a hundred times less than the...

In 2008, the construction of the Large hadron Collider, or LHC, was completed. At the same time, I visited CERN, where I was offered a tour of the main experimental installations of the LHC. I usually participated in conferences CERN, but a tour of a working plant made a lasting impression on me. The experimental setup was called "compact muon solenoid". It was quite small by the standards of CERN, the device size only three-story house, and I witnessed the final Assembly of all components. A massive cone-shaped contraption was placed inside a barrel housing of the detector - it was like a lot of huge digital cameras, lenses of which facing toward the center of the detector, where they faced high-energy proton beams. after the tour, we had a little climb in...

Ordinary modern man creates a little less than one terabyte of data every year. But some people are superior to the average. One of such people, Duane Roy, the baby is living in Boston. He regularly produces similar amount of data for each output. Why Dwayne creates so many bits? I must say that he is the son of Professor DeBa Roy-managing the Cognitive Machines group at the MIT Media Lab, and Professor Rupal Patel, studying speech pathology at northwestern University. Both parents Duane with great interest to study how children learn to speak. It's important to Patel, since it is included in her chosen area of research. Roy is important because he wants to use the same principles for training robots to communicate in human language. The couple realized...

In 1947 was created the world's first transistor. In our days, annually produces more than 10 000 000 000 000 000 000 transistors that are 100 times greater than the number of rice grains absorbed annually seven billion inhabitants of the Earth. The world's first transistor computer was assembled in 1953 in Manchester and contained 92 of the transistor. Today you can buy more than 100,000 transistors for the price of a grain of rice, and in your mobile phone them about a billion. In this Chapter, we will describe the operation of the transistor, which can certainly be considered the most important application of quantum theory. As we have seen in the previous Chapter, the conductor because the conductor, some electrons are in the conduction band. For this...

Legendary volcanic eruptions in various regions of the world today are considered guilty of four of five mass extinctions on Earth. the Most significant episodes of the decay of life on our planet in different historical periods were attributed to falling asteroids, microbes produce gases or volcanic eruptions. The so-called big five mass extinction led to the extermination of most animals and plants on Earth, including the dinosaurs 66 million years ago. The new data clearly indicate a catastrophic eruption as the real culprits of extinction. High-precision Dating of rocks allows to correlate in time the disaster with four major extinctions and to link the eruption with a lethal change in the atmosphere, which will be illustrated next. for Example, 251.9...

The prisoner's Dilemma and game theory Two crooked financier, al and Bernie was arrested for fraud. While they are awaiting trial, the police keep them in separate cells. Meanwhile, the Prosecutor is considering a small problem. At the moment the evidence is sufficient only to condemn them for relatively minor tax offence. For charges of fraud, he only needs one of them testified against the other. after considering this situation, the Prosecutor comes into the camera to al and offers him the following deal: 1. If you testify against your accomplice, and he is against you, then using your statement, we can condemn him for fraud. Give him 10 years in prison, and you will be released; 2. If you refuse to cooperate, and your accomplice will testify against...

Alan Guth, whose inflation Universe scenario may help to explain why our observable universe so close to flat and homogeneous condition the Cool morning in December, 1979 in Palo Alto Alan Guth that there are hand pedaled bike, hurrying to his office in the theoretical physics group at SLAC, Stanford linear accelerator center having Reached the desktop, he opened the notebook to a new page and wrote: AMAZING a GUESS: this kind of supercooling can explain why the universe today is so incredibly flat — and therefore, to resolve the paradox of the fine tuning that Bob's dick had described in his lectures at the bottom of Einstein. He carefully circled these words a rectangular frame. Then another Being a scientist, you live for the day when you will be able to...

New York state psychiatric hospital Pilgrim Science begins with a General recognition of the existence of a problem or field of study. In the next phase we will concentrate on what, in fact, need to learn to solve. Where to start? You need to watch, what facts we need to identify what data to collect? We never tire of repeating that one of the greatest misconceptions about science is that the facts already given, clearly defined, well-defined and necessary, and that they begin with a scientific study. Actually it is not so. when Faced with any problem, we understand that a number of facts that can be considered is enormous, and we must begin by determining what facts should be considered significant and which are not. And if we say that the bias can...

"the Progress of mankind, — it is noted in the Political report of the Central Committee of the CPSU XXVII Congress of the party, is directly related to the scientific and technological revolution. It matured gradually, then, in the last quarter century, give rise to a huge increment of material and spiritual possibilities of man. Possibilities are two-fold. There is a qualitative leap in the productive forces of humanity. But a qualitative leap in means of destruction, in the military, for the first time in the history of "giving" a person's physical ability to destroy all life on Earth. In different socio-political systems scientific-technical revolution turns into its different facets and consequences." Becoming one of the most important areas of...

The Percentage of the population who consider religion an important part of your life a Global survey of attitudes and trends Global Attitudes & Trends for 2015, revealed the attitude of people to religion on a global scale. According to the Pew research center, 98% of Ethiopians consider religion a very important part of my life, the same opinion is shared by only 3% of Chinese and 11% of Japanese. In Ethiopia, almost all of the respondents claimed that the Ethiopian Orthodox Church influences their worldview. Another African country, Senegal ranks second, here in the predominantly Muslim country, 97% of the population consider religion a very important part of my life. The five most religious countries, in addition to the above, also includes Indonesia...

18-time world champion Lee SEDOL AlphaGo learns something new — the defeat on 2 December 1942 a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi observed returning from lunch, as humankind has launched the first ever self-sustaining nuclear reaction within the piles of bricks and boards under a football field at the University of Chicago. Known as "Chicago pile-1" experiment was celebrated in the quiet of a single bottle of "Chianti": those who were present, the significance of this event for humanity, it was clear without words. Now there was something new, once unnoticed forever changed the world. If the word whispered in a foreign language: you like it, and I heard, but its true meaning has eluded you. Nevertheless, it is vital to understand this new language and...