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The scientific approach

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For decades, this book served as the basic textbook on logic and scientific method in most American universities and is still in demand. The authors were able to combine syllogistic of Aristotle with the formal language of mathematical logic and the methodology of knowledge of them is set out in close connection with logic.

The book provides a critical examination of the fragments of the works of contemporary French thinkers postmodernists: J. Deleuze, J. Derrida, J. Baudrillard, Jacques Lacan and others, is addressing issues of mathematics and science or terminology of these disciplines.The authors have set a goal to draw attention to the above and the misuse of terms, according to them, characteristic of the cited thinkers.

Leon Trotsky This book was written in the period when the power of the Soviet bureaucracy seemed unshakable, and its authority is undeniable. The danger from German fascism naturally turned for sympathy in democratic circles in Europe and America in the Council. English, French and Czechoslovak generals were present at the maneuvers of the red Army and gave praise its officers, its soldiers, its technology. The praise was well deserved. The name of the generals Yakir and Uborevich, commander of the Ukrainian and Belorussian Military Districts with respect was called in those days on the pages of the world press. The Marshal Tukhachevsky quite rightly saw the future of the Generalissimo. At the same time, many "left" of foreign journalists, that not only...

We live in, almost without understanding anything in the world. Not thinking about what mechanism generates the sunlight that ensures our existence, not thinking about gravity that holds us on the Earth without letting it throw us into space. We are not interested in the atoms which we are made and from the resistance which we are substantially dependent. Except for children (who still don't know enough not to ask such serious questions), few people scratching their heads over why nature is what it is, where did the space and not whether it existed always? could the time one day to reverse, so that the result will be preceded by the cause? is there an insurmountable limit to human knowledge? There are even kids (I met them) who want to know how does a black...

Let me tell you how bad things are. In thousands of British state schools teach children that, if vigorously shake its head up and down, this will increase the blood flow to the frontal lobes of the brain; that if you RUB your fingers together a special "scientific" way, it will improve the energy current to the body; cooked food does not contain water as if to hold water on the tongue, it will hydrate the brain directly through the sky. It's all part of a special exercise program called "brain training". We will devote some time to these ideas and the clowns in our education system that support them. However, this book is not a collection of trivial absurdities. It demonstrates a path from trust, which have the charlatans of the mass media, through the...

From the very beginning We were strangers. We knew all the trees for a hundred miles around. Once matured, the fruit – we came to collect them. We followed herds of animals, making the annual migration. We rejoiced over the fresh meat to mine it, I had to sneak in, to cheat, to ambush and hunt together. Indeed, when we come together, we managed what was beyond the power of the hunter alone. The idea is to feed himself seemed as absurd as the transition to settled life.

The Book is dedicated aggression – that is, the instinct of struggle against colleagues by the form – animal and human. To write it I conceived in the United States, where he arrived with two goals: to read a course of lectures on comparative ethology and physiology of behaviour for psychologists, psychoanalysts and psychiatrists and check under natural conditions on coral reefs off the coast of Florida hypothesis on the combat behavior of some fishes and about the function of painting for the conservation of the species, developed on the basis of aquarium observations. In American clinics I first met psychoanalysts, for whom the theory of Sigmund Freud was not an absolute dogma but working hypothesis, as it should be in any science.

The Book is devoted to cosmology — the science of the structure and evolution of the Universe. It examines how the classical principles of cosmology and the latest problems: the theory of the expanding hot Universe, the problem of a singular state in the past, the physical processes in the early stages of cosmological expansion, gravitational instability and the formation of galaxies. With sufficient completeness and clarity and is considered a classic problem: the geometry of the world, the motion of matter and propagation of light in an expanding Universe. In an accessible form provides information on the General theory of relativity, the theory of elementary particles, physical statistics. The qualitative aspect described in the book accessible to a wide...

This book is dedicated to the methodology of science. The authors, analyzing the history of some discoveries from three areas of knowledge, medicine, physics, psychopathology,— considering the scientific method of knowledge, talk about how scientific discoveries are made, as there are theories, as they are checking and why they are accepted or rejected. The book is intended for a wide circle of readers.

It analyzes the latest trends and the tendency of bourgeois ideology, which is inherent in the conditions of deepening of the General crisis of capitalism, and the relationship and mutual influence of the bourgeois-liberal and conservative trends in the ideological-political strategy of anti-communism; a critique is given of the bourgeois revolutionary, sociological aspects of the technicist theories, corporate doctrines of the modern bourgeoisie. For researchers and teachers of social Sciences, all interested in the problems of ideological struggle.

"my Name is Charles Darwin. I was born in 1809, studied, Pro-circumnavigation – and again studied". So said the great scientist of annoying the publisher who sought to get his biographical information. Fortunately, about this man's life, and itemlevel obvorachivanie all its almost incredible modesty, remained more abundant documentary information in printed after his death, "Autobiography" (meant strictly for family), and five volumes of correspondence, carefully collected and published by his son Francis and Professor Seward. Based on these sources, it is possible to borrow the words of the author, was composed on the occasion of Cambridge honoring his memory is a brief, well-illustrated biographical sketch, was given away to all visitors and don't seem to...

Before you dictionary based on thermodynamics, equilibrium mainly composed of sorted in alphabetical order of articles. This dictionary differs from the systematic manuals of similar subjects. The range of issues falling within the scope of interests of the author, rather narrow; accordingly, the set of articles included in the proposed to your attention the book is far from encyclopedic. Thermodynamics in this book is considered as a branch of continuum physics and classical thermodynamics as the basis of thermodynamics technical, physical, chemical and nonequilibrium...

Views of modern man about scientific and pseudoscientific very vague. In astrology in our time, believes more people than in the Middle ages. What is behind a huge number of unusual, unexplained or simply contradictory phenomena, from biblical miracles and ending with bioenergetic methods of treatment? Confident data in psychology, physics, logical analysis, history, Jonathan Smith takes the reader on a mysterious unexplored territories, not allowing to get lost among complicated scientific concepts and helping to discern the truth an incredible and believable deception.

We are All familiar with the discoveries that have become evident milestones on the way towards the understanding of man's laws of the surrounding world: from Archimedes guesses about the magnitude of the force acting on immersed in the liquid body, and ending with the latest theories of hidden dimensions of space-time. But how were these discoveries made? Why in due time? Why do those whom we now consider to be the pioneers? And what to do who wants not only to understand what is all around, but do you know what path humanity has come to the modern world? The book you hold in your hands, will help to touch the mystery of brilliant insights.

The Editors of books on physics. Something unusual: on a humorous book – and suddenly mark scientific publishing! But it is not a coincidence. Everything in this book is funny, fully understand and appreciate those who read serious scientific literature and listening (and doing) the reports of scientists, because the authors of these jokes also scholars, sometimes very famous. From this point of view, this book is too scientific. However, it is available not only to scientists. Everyone who loves a joke, will enjoy reading the little comic strips, and see behind them is serious science – physics with a new, perhaps unexpected, side. People of all professions like to joke, but these jokes don't usually get into print, and disappear. Which is a pity! Physical...