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Pectrum

Articles on a range of subjects: history of Russia and the world, society, famous people, amazing events, unique places, curiosities past and present. A huge collection of jokes and jokes and fun and instructive stories from life.

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Why trucks raise the rear wheels? There is a special mechanism that controls the ascent and descent a spare pair of wheels, which is called "sloth". In short, it is needed in order to increase the allowed capacity of the vehicle, the more axles a truck has, the more tons he is allowed to carry. However, the three axle truck is required only at full load, empty it easier and more economical to travel on four wheels and better handling, and fuel consumption is lower. In such cases, the rear pair of wheels is raised sloth. Read also: roundabouts are safer than conventional

Photo: Josiane B. Ivashchenko / Depositphotos Among the mushroom pickers exists a myth that picking the mushrooms can damage the mycelium and therefore must be cut. Actually you can use any method. The mycologists explain: the mycelium is huge in comparison with every single mushroom, and even if people or animals povertyvajut most of the mushrooms, it will not harm the mycelium. However, to pluck the mushrooms carefully, twisting, not pulling them from the ground. Mycologist Kim Potapov writes: "Imagine that the mycelium is the tree, and fruiting bodies — apples. Apple still collect apples cut, remove from branches or torn off, the main thing — not to break branches. Similarly the mycelium no difference how you collect mushrooms, collect as you prefer...

Photo: Liudmila Dutko / Depositphotos Cancer of the peritoneum is usually called the appearance of her metastatic lesions in malignant tumors of the abdominal cavity. Much less frequently pathology develops as a primary tumor disease — mesothelioma or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Pathology is treatable. But to remove all foci of tumor tissue during surgery is practically impossible, so in developed countries for the treatment of this cancer is additionally used HIPEC therapy. What is HIPEC? the Most effective method of treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis surgical. The doctor performs cytoreductive surgery, which aims to remove all visible tumor foci. But even if in the abdominal cavity are not defined areas of cancer spread after surgery without...

The Film "a Nightmare on elm street" was inspired by a real story, which the Director Wes Craven read in the newspaper. Son of the couple from Cambodia constantly struggled with nightmares so terrible that the boy refused to sleep, thus harming his health. The doctor advised the parents to change their place of residence and those moved to the United States. At the new place, the boy finally fell asleep, but the night his parents were awakened by a piercing scream. When they ran into the nursery, my son was unconscious. To save the boy failed. Read also: 10 facts about horror movies, no less impressive than the movies themselves

What causes a hangover, science still is uncertain. Well, what we know, we gathered in a small interesting collection of facts! Illustration: Oleksandr Babich / Depositphotos 1. Previously it was thought that alcohol dehydrates the body: under his influence, frequent urination, the blood becomes thicker, and the hangover is accompanied by severe thirst. But it is known that alcohol contributes to edema: accumulation of water in tissues. By examining these processes in more detail, the researchers came to the conclusion that it is not dehydration, and abnormal redistribution of body fluids in vessels of water is not enough, and in the tissues too much. So the hangover gets double impact on health and appearance. 2. It is often argued that alcoholic drinks...

Photo: Andrii Rafalskyi / Depositphotos Every after cooking, the meat should "rest": at least 10 minutes for small pieces and 15-20 for large, for example, chicken baked as a whole. Why is it so important? Because the juice is freshly cooked meat too thin. If you cut the meat, it will flow out, leaving the piece too dry. Time of "rest" allows the juices evenly distributed throughout the meat fibers to thicken and, therefore, meat becomes tender, juicy and flavorful. Read more: Red meat increases body odor

Galileo Galilei the Theory of relativity was first stated by Galileo Galilei in his "Dialogue concerning the two chief world systems" in 1632. to understand the theory of relativity, the first thing you need to understand the theory that it replaced. We are talking about the theory of "absolute rest", postulated by Aristotle in the IV century BC, According to Aristotle, rest is the natural state of any body, left to itself, the body will return to it's natural state. the Theory of relativity asserts that all bodies are in motion relative to each other and that the definition of the body as being "at rest" matter of pure Convention. It follows that the velocity of a body cannot be expressed as an absolute — just as "relative" to anything else. the Italian...

Joshua Abraham Norton Joshua Abraham Norton — US resident, self-proclaimed in 1859, the Emperor of the United States and appropriated the title of His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of the United States Norton I and Protector of Mexico. Joshua Norton was born in London, childhood and youth spent in South Africa. In 1849, Norton immigrated to San Francisco, having inherited the property of his father at a cost of 40 thousand dollars. Norton was engaged in business until it went bankrupt, invested all the money in Peruvian rice. After losing the trial in which Norton tried to void his rice contract, he left San Francisco. A few years later, Norton returned probably powerdevil in mind, and proclaimed himself Emperor of the United States. Norton I Clothes...

The Color of chameleon depends on its emotional state. And if suddenly the color match with the surrounding background, it is a coincidence, nothing more. the Chameleon changes color when it is scared or picked up, or if he won the fight, another of a chameleon. They change color when their sight falls on the member of the opposite sex, and sometimes — due to changes in temperature or lighting. the Skin of a chameleon has several layers of special cells, the so-called chromatophores (from the Greek chroma, "color," and phoros, "to carry"), each with its own color pigments. The change in the ratio between the layers causes the skin to reflect different types of light, making the chameleon a kind of a walking light show. And again, the Chameleon can rotate...

"Two snowflakes are alike does not happen" — said Wilson Alwyn Bentley. And who was he to believe Bentley has devoted sixty years of his life to photographing snowflakes. Wilson Alwyn Bentley the Camera, which was used by Wilson Bentley throughout his life, cost his father one hundred dollars at the time of such acquisition was an example of inexcusable extravagance. Wilson Bentley spent almost two years to the end, through trial and error, to obtain first a clear micrographic the ice crystal. The apparatus used Bentley for receiving the photos is a conventional combination camera and microscope lens which increased the object in 64-3600 times. When the photographs of Wilson Bentley first came into the hands of scientists and professional photographers...

Apsley cherry-Garrard, the British, polar Explorer, traveler and a famous book of memoirs "The worst journey", in which he described his expedition to Antarctica in 1910-1913 Expedition "Terra Nova" was incredibly difficult, because researchers for the first time made such a long trip in the polar night atmosphere. the expedition Ship "Terra Nova"Apsley cherry Garretto: Wikipedia to overcome hundreds of kilometres in almost total darkness and when the air temperature is around -60 °C, the researchers needed almost three weeks. Sometimes during the day, managed to overcome in just a couple of kilometers. Due to icing tent set for a few hours, sacks of food was opened and the kerosene froze to a state of jelly. after Arriving at Cape Corse, which was the aim...

Women of the tribe of heretofore: Jim Naughten — Herero numerically small tribe living in Namibia. A distinctive feature of this tribe is a unique women's clothes not found anywhere else in the world, except for the museums of clothing. Women's wear daily, Herero copied from the dresses of the European ladies in colonial times. The skirt is lush, wide, with lots of petticoats. Sleeve lush. Sometimes top wear a vest and a shawl. On the head in a special way laid the handkerchief, reminiscent of cow's horns. Anthropologists believe that this headdress dates back to the piece of skin in the form of a Trident, which Herero women wore before the missionaries. To cover the nakedness of women-Guerrero taught the wives of the missionaries from Germany. Photo: Jim...

Phobaeticus Sapporo: Wikipedia the body Length of stick insects-the record is 56 inches, when you consider the length of the outstretched limbs. the Insect was named Phobaeticus chani, was discovered by local residents on the island of Borneo. In 1989, the sample fell into the hands of the Malaysian naturalist-fan Datuk Janiculum, where it remained until recently, until he was identified by one of the staff of the British Museum of natural history. the Insect belongs to the so-called stick insects. These creatures got their name for the body shape, which resembles a long stick. This appearance helps insects hide from predators in trees and shrubs. Read also: ladybugs protected with the blood of the tribes

Striped Bryzgunov: Wikipedia Fish-Archer fish has an amazing ability to hunt for insects, which it confuses with the surface of plants or in the air using water, vybrazhivaet mouth. The Archer fish brings them head back to the surface of the water and carefully observe the moving objects in the surface environment. Having seen creeping along tree branches, bushes or flying insect, a fish swims up to the cutoff of water, the snout sticks out on its surface and a good "spit" knocks the prey into the water. Read also: the world's Only warm-blooded fish

Safety glass is widely used in the automotive industry and construction. Today it's everywhere, but when the French scientist (and also a painter, composer and writer) Edouard Benedictus in 1903 accidentally dropped on the floor an empty glass flask and it shattered, that he was very surprised. As it turned out, the flask was stored a solution of collodion, the solution evaporated, but the vessel wall was coated with a thin layer. At the time, France was actively developing the automotive industry, and the windshield was made of ordinary glass that was the cause of many injuries of drivers, which is what drew the attention of the Benedictus. He saw a real benefit to save human lives in the use of his invention in cars, but automakers found it too expensive...