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C. B. Sindeeva, C. brown
the Material of this article are media texts, including, typically, a large number of factual information, including the names of politicians, public figures, artists, scientists, etc.
as names of persons may act together with animae and appellative (independently or as part phrases) indicating gender, age, social status, professional affiliation, etc.,
Speaking as denotation, face significantly different from the denotata - inanimate objects. The main difference between them is that the person having many of the characteristics used many names, while to the subject, although possessing and fewer symptoms, but not the only sign, only one name [Miloslavsky 1980: 93]. Among the items belonging to the same person, there are both neutral and performing pronounced the evaluation function. They are the subject of analysis in this article. The main goal of the research is to identify mechanisms of evaluation in raznostoronnih the names of persons used in the German-speaking media texts.
Interest in linguistic axiology, a key concept of which is the evaluation, display and showed for a long time researchers of all levels and aspects of language. Under the evaluation they understand the assessment, expressed in a language and become due to this property of the language elements. Most accurately the essence and nature of the assessment formulated in the works of Yu D. of apresjan, N. D. Arutyunova, E. M. wolf and other Assessment is seen as an expression of the value relationship of the subject to the object. While emphasizing its subjective nature, manifested in the fact that “the man appreciates what he needs (physically or spiritually)” [Arutyunov 1999: 181). As a mandatory component of the assessment framework are the subject of evaluation, evaluation, evaluation itself and the Foundation of the evaluation.
We will be interested primarily those components of the assessment framework, which find verbal expression in the German-speaking media texts. To this end, the method of continuous sampling was formed sufficiently large corpus of examples with names of persons, the denotata which are mainly political figures. This is due to the fact that of all the genres of media texts preference was given to publications, information and analytical materials (in accordance with classification mediatext Dobroklonskii), one of the essential features of which is the availability of analytical, evaluative component [Dobroklonsky 2005: 122].
Present in the collected actual material of the names of persons are quite colorful picture of how value and form. Functioning in media texts as separate words, they may have different derivational structure - this can be the root of the word: Zar, Fuchs (this group is represented in the collected actual material the smallest number of examples); the derived words: Zarewitsch, Hyperpräsident, Supergirl; compound words (composites): Trophy-Weib, Kreml-Aspirant, Wanderpokal, Kaufhauskönig; selenoprotein words: Schürzenjäger, Hausmännchen, Bannerträger.
the Most numerous were the group of anthroponyms (names of persons) with the structure of phrases - it can be noun phrases: Zögling Wladimir Putins, Madame de Pompidour, Der Vorkämpfer der untadeligen Republik, Rächer der Anständigen, der Bannerträger derer, die früh aufstehen", Anführer des Mordkomplotts von Paris, Signum einer Epoch. Prevail among them, the combination of a noun (derived, complex, selenoproteins) with inconsistent definition is expressed by the genitive (the name of a common noun or proper name).
the names of persons may have a structure in case of the phrase: der kleine Gigant, der populärste Kreml-Frau, geiler Bock, lächerliche Figur, vermeintlicher Stutzer. As defined word can make in their composition raznostoronnie lexical unit (root, derivative, compound words).
the function of a medium of expression evaluation in media text can be the name of the person all of these structural types. Their evaluation can be attributed to this in different ways, combining the same time is the fact that they all act as one or another stylistic means, characterized by the evaluation. Among them are periphrase, metaphors (soumettre as one of their variants), antonomasia, irony.
All of them are of interest for research, but this paper will focus on antonomasia.
According to the dictionaries of linguistic terms antonomasia interpreted in two ways. It involves stylistic technique used to denote inherent in or ascribed to someone or properties and which consists in the replacement of any household name own name, and Vice versa - substitute your own name, the name of the appellative [Metzler-Lexikon Sprache 2000: 47]. This paper presents the second point of view on the essence of antonomasia.
In the assembled factual material common nouns are replaced by the such own (personal) names as Medvedev, Putin, Sarkozy, Mozart, Claudia Pompidou, as well as a collective term denoting the rock band Vampire Weekend.
Personal name Medvedev replaced often synonymous nouns, emphasizing its political independence (from the point of view of the authors of publications), for example:
Dmitri Medwedew am Sonntag will neuer Präsident werden. Aufgestiegen als Zögling Wladimir Putins, wirbt er plötzlich für mehr Rechtsstaat, Markt und Medienfreiheit [Spiegel, № 9/25, 25.2.08: 116]. (1)
Negative (slightly ironic) evaluation is achieved in this context due to the use of obsolete words Zögling in combination with the words neutral style. The same evaluation can buy antonomasia and other structural types, as for example in the following example:
Medwedews Partner von einst bestreiten, dass der Kreml-Aspirant direkt oder über sie als Mittelsmänner noch Anteile halte [Spiegel, № 9/25, 25.2.08: 120]. (2)
as the name of the person in the example above is an occasional compound word der Kreml-Aspirant violation of semantic matching between its components, which is the reason for the negative (ironic) evaluation.
Similar assessment function is performed by the names of the persons in the following two examples:
Droht Russland eine Doppeltherrschaft unter veränderten Vorzeiche - mit Putin, nun als Premier, weiter auf der Kommandobrücke und Bootsmann Medwedew im Kreml? [Spiegel, № 9/25, 25.2.08: 117] (3)
Wird er Zar - oder bleibt er Zarevitsch, wie die Zarensöhne einst hießen? [Spiegel, № 9/25, 25.2.08: 117] (4)
the coincidence evaluation function names of persons in the four examples above have significant differences from the point of view of stylistics. If the first two examples it is, as mentioned above, about antonomasia, in the third example, we deal with the application, which is essentially a type definition. Evaluation (irony) is achieved here due to the discrepancies between the official (high) status Medvedev and application semantics Bootsmann, indicating the position of Junior officers of the crew.
In the fourth example we can talk about paraphrase, based on metaphorical transfer. In semnai structure metaphors Zarewitsch is Sam “the second person in the state (ancient Russia)”, conflicting with the official (high) status Medvedev, which is the cause of ironic effect.
once assembled, the actual material are examples in which the personal name of Vladimir Putin is used with application der populärste Kreml-Herr, positive evaluation which is associated with elevated color core words used in addition with the determination expressed by adjectives in the superlative degree, for example:
Was treibt Wladimir Putin, den populärsten Kreml-Herrn seit langem, nach Ende seiner verfassungsgemäßen Amtszeit ins zweite Glied zu wechseln? [Spiegel, № 9/25, 25.2.08: 116](5)
the Most interesting and expressive submitted the names of persons used instead of the name of the French President Nicolas Sarkozy: Hyperpräsident, der Vorkämpfer der untadeligen Republik, der Rächer der Anständigen, der Bannerträger derer, die früh aufstehen", der kleine Gigant, geiler Bock, Schürzenjäger, lächerliche Figur. From a stylistic point of view, they are heterogeneous. A considerable part of them is in the text as antonomasia, for example:
Er kompensiert Rückschläge, indem er nur noch mehr arbeitet. Dabei bündelt der "Hyperpräsident" persönliche wie Macht any seiner Vorgänger [Spiegel, № 4, 21.1.08: 96]. (6)
Cecilia, "la belle et rebelle", die Vorgängerin Carla Brunis nicht im dotierten Amt der Premiere dame, sie hielt das Leben im Schatten des kleinen Giganten nicht mehr aus [Spiegel, № 4, 21.1.08: 100]. (7)
antonomasia Hyperpräsident (example 6) the name of Sarkozy is replaced by designation of the kind of work (head of state). Negative evaluation (irony, bordering on sarcasm) is achieved at the expense of semantic matching between base - Rräsident and borrowed the prefix hyper-implementing in conjunction with the names of nouns this exaggeration. The degree of negative evaluation increases due to the use of quotation marks.
Antonomasia der kleine Gigant (example 7) has oxymoronic character, representing a phrase whose components denote the denotata (media quality and the quality), are incompatible with each other. Is based on this negative evaluation (sarcasm) considered antonomasia.
Sufficiently numerous examples in which personal name Nicolas Sarkozy used with the application, for example:
Sarkozy, der Vorkämpfer der "untadeligen Republik", der Rächer der Anständigen, der Bannerträger derer, die früh aufstehen", die "mehr arbeiten wollen, um mehr zu verdienen", er "betreibt mit defined Exhibitionismus die Demontage einer Institution", glaubt der Philosoph Michel Onfray [Spiegel, № 4, 21.1.08: 96]. (8)
Evaluation of all applications in the above example (8) is achieved through the use of lexical units with elevated color (der Vorkämpfer, der Rächer, der Bannerträger) in a neutral context.
Not less expressive names of persons belonging to Carla Bruni, for example:
Sie ist zweifellos das perfekte Trophy-Weib, und dabei ein Wanderpokal der Schönen der Reichen und Berühmten, "die Rolex unter den Frauen" wie ein anonymer Vertrauter Sarkozys zitiert wurde, ein Supergirl [Spiegel, № 4, 21.1.08: 102]. (9)
the Author calls her Trophy-Weib and Wanderpokal. In the first case, negative evaluation is achieved through the occasionality of education Trophy-Weib (woman-trophy) which violated the rules of the semantic reconciliation of its components. In the second case, the negative evaluation of complex words Wanderpokal connected, firstly, with the use of professional (sports) vocabulary in her unusual context and, secondly, with the metaphorical transfer of title with an inanimate object on the face. In addition, a lexical unit Trophy-Weib and Wanderpokal have in their semnai the structure of one General this transition from one source to another.”
Thus, analyzed above examples indicate that raznostoronnie names of persons appear as one of the effective ways of expression evaluation (usually subjective!) in the German-speaking media texts.
1. Arutyunov, N. D. Language and the world of man. - M., 1999.
2. Dobroklonsky, that is, the study of media texts. - M., 2005.
3. Miloslavsky, I., Questions of linguistic synthesis. - M., 1980.
4. Metzler-Lexikon Sprache / hrsg. von Helmut Gluck. - Stuttgart; Weimar; Metzler, 2000.
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