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1) Before us is the city of Belev of the Tula region, the coeval of Moscow, according to the Hypatian Codex, was first mentioned in 1147. It is located 120 km South-West of Tula, 250 km from Moscow and 40 km from Kozelsk, Kaluga region. Applied for the same at the time I had one of the most comfortable cities in Russia, Believe same is not so clear.
2) In the XIV century the city came under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. From the end of XIV — early XV centuries until 1558 was the centre of an appendage Principality Belevsky. In 1437 I Belev was a battle between Tatar army under the command of Khan Ulu-Muhammed and the Russian army, in which Russian forces suffered a crushing defeat. Curiously, in those years Belev belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and Ulu-Muhammad, capturing Christy Clark, tried to show loyalty to the Grand Prince of Moscow and the Union. But the Prince could not go on the conflict with Lithuania, and was forced to turn down the Khan. Attacks and looting of Crimean Tatars in Believe also occurred in 1512 and 1544. In 1536, the attack was successfully repulsed near the town, under the village Amrani, the Governor Semyon I. Levshin ancestor Vasily Levshin (historian-ethnographer, researcher of the Tula province).
3) From the 2nd half of the XVI century fortress Christy Clark was part of abatis on the southern outskirts of Russia. Ivan the terrible personally arrived to inspect the frontiers and visited the Nobel fortress. Belev also included in the so-called "oprichnina" cities. Later the fortress Belevskaja was part of the Ukrainian line (the system of military-engineering continuous earthen fortifications, copying the terrain, intended for the protection of the steppe zone of southern Russia from raids of Crimean Tatars in the eighteenth century).
4) In Believe already in the XVII century was carried out with wooden water pipes. In 1777, the town became a district center of the Belevsky district of the Tula governorship (from 1796 — province of Tula).
7) Tomb of Colonel Mikhail Zatonsky, head of the engineering troops of the 61st army, who was killed at the security checkpoint troops through the barrage the Germans on Bolkhov direction in 1943.
8) Long-Vyacheslav soullaway was an interesting idea to bring different products produced in a particular place visited, which I did.
the City also for their crafts - belevskii lace, which I covered in one of the previous posts, and Nobel marshmallows.
Start of production of the pastille Nobel is associated with the name of the merchant Ambrose Prokhorov, who in 1858 had laid a large orchard, and in 1888 opened the dryer for the processing of the fruit, which began to produce the candy.
In 1890 belevskaja (also known as "prokhorovskaya") pastille won first prize at the exhibition of gardening in St. Petersburg, after which Prokhorov founds own stores in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Tbilisi. In 1899 Prokhorov publishes the work of "Preparation of pure Nobel-Apple pastila".
the candy is made from whipped sugar and egg white pulp of baked apples Antonovka. Most often Belevsky the marshmallows do puff — in the form of rolls.
9) Belevin connected With the biography and personal life of the poet and the teacher of Alexander II by Vasily Zhukovsky, the Slavophile, folklorist Pyotr Kireevsky, the poetess Zinaida Gippius, the captain of the white movement Vladimir Kappel, the writer Mikhail Prishvin, who on the basis of folk legends of the town wrote a series of stories "krutoyarskiy settlements the beast" and "bird cemetery".
10) on 4 may 1826 in Believe, on his way from Taganrog, died Russian Empress Elizaveta Alekseevna, wife of Alexander I.
11) Sleeping areas.
12) In Belev will need to go in a few years, if the city will put in order. I suggest again that you look at my material from a trip to Kozelsk, which is 40 km from this city. There you will see that not everywhere the hopelessness that is an example of improvement of the city, under the same conditions, the distance from Federal highways and major rail lines.
13) the Monument to Vasily Zhukovsky.
14) Alekseevskaya gate Church (1693-1697.) and belltower (1820) of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky men's monastery
15) Brick refectory Church in the southern part of the monastery. Built in 1698-1700.
16) Example of Moscow architecture, the Cathedral of Transfiguration, built 1683-1886. Two-column three-apse Cathedral the quadrangle is completed with five domes on the hill of corbel arches. In the 1920s it was closed. Now restored by a team of workers from Tajikistan, inside the temple and live.
17) the Gate Church and the bell tower from the side of the roadway. Inside it there is a small shop where they sell Belevsky candy.
18) On the banks of the Oka river. Here it is much less than in Kasimov and Murom.
19) pre-Revolutionary gravestones of monks.
20) This picture is very strong, in my opinion.
21) the Oka River.
26) a Dilapidated women's Holy cross monastery is the oldest women's monastery on the territory of Tula region.
the photo -brick four-pillar Cathedral in the spirit of eclecticism, complete with decorative five domes, was built in 1870.
27) the Church is built of red brick, was plastered and painted in a crimson color and was crowned with three domes, symbolizing the Trinity. The temple is cross-domed, three-aisled, domed cruciform, with one triangular in plan the Central apse. Chancel separated from nave arcade. Choose arcade – is an ancient architectural technique, common in Byzantium from the fifth century. It is a series of arches and supporting pillars or columns. Arcade games often used to organize the internal space of the temples and at the device galleries. On the lateral corners of the temple — dual blades (flat vertical ledge), which are imitation of Byzantine columns. Also the blades temple is divided into three naves. These blades simulate Byzantine columns. The top plane of the Church is decorated arkaturno belt that goes over the entire surface of the walls, except the Eastern.
the Shape of the Church is eclectic, i.e. a mixture of styles is observed. This decorative blind arcades along the perimeter, characteristic of the Byzantine Empire, and trim in the form trehobemnyh kokoshniks (admission, established in the Russian Church architecture of the XVI-XVII centuries), and classical pilasters. The semicircular window on the second floor is double. The edges of the East wall two Windows, and the center three. In such arrangement of Windows can be traced Byzantine motifs. The lower part of the second layer is composed of profiles made of brick. On the sides of the semi-columns, without ahinov. Is the architrave. It is also an imitation of the order. The architrave is decorated with twin Gables, on which the pointed arch forms a triangle.
In the lower tier — one window, decorated with semicircles at the top and accented with "eyebrows". Exactly the same Windows on other facades.
In the middle of the North and South walls on a brick shaped belt — Calvary four-pointed Latin cross. His branches over heart-shaped end. This cross is also called cross of the ascent or the descent. It represents the three stages of the Christian virtues: Faith, Hope and Charity. Above, on the plane of the wall, above the cross, a Byzantine semi-columns with three-part completion, executed in brick technology with use of white stone. It is also the heritage of Byzantium.
the Apse, tall two layers, also with Windows. In the ground floor with "crest", and the second with the archivolt.
the entrance to the Church is a narthex, on top decorated arkaturno belt. In the narthex is also semi-circular Windows, one on each side, and arched entrance.
28) Inside of the thick temple rectangular foundations cross shape, a massive arch around the perimeter of the temple. In the Central part there are three arched entrance to the chancel. The cross vaults, except for the apse, where torispherical arch becomes closed. Actually, arch, architectural element, present in the external and internal decoration of the Church, including the bell tower, in a very large number. Arch — the physical embodiment of the resilience of the human spirit, victory over chaos, who desperately seeks to destroy the arch and break the spirit. It is an architectural symbol of the sunrise and light; it is the crown, and this rainbow is the sign of the Covenant between God and man. Arch powerfully and gracefully flies through the air from a support to a support, showing an allegory of rise and fall at the same time, embodying the image of our short life. With all this power and this form is fragile, delicate, airy. The arch and the dome — arch derivatives. They are merely the projection of the movement of the arch in space. Cons — the movement in its depth, a dome motion around its axis.
The second floor is made in the form of large choir, which previously led up a wooden staircase.
the Foundation of a high, white stone, lined with large blocks. This is also a Byzantine tradition.
29) Bell tower (1801 year built) is made in the spirit of provincial classicism of the late XVIII century. Talking about this decorative pilasters, pediments, bull's eye (horizontal or vertical oval window) above the arch. Decorated blades and profiles. The lower tier cornice and triangular pediment decorated with dentils. The decoration of the facades of the bell tower, built in the era of Mature classicism, built in the traditions of architecture of early classicism. It was distinguished by the absence of major order segmentation and the desire for maximum filling of space with walls of finely shaped details.
30) the Church of the Intercession of the blessed virgin Mary in the Baroque style, erected in the 1780s (the bell tower in the 1850s)
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