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Sperm – they are real swimmers and active participants in the complex process of producing offspring through which the world is born every day 365 thousand babies. How did it happen? It all starts with the simplest elements of the evolution and composition of the seminal fluid.
the Structure of sperm
the Sperm is composed of various parts, and all useful material is stored in the head. A file with the information (DNA) is called the kernel, and this is the only component that eventually merges with the egg. The blueprint for creating an organism are stored in the that neither is a tiny space, and the code ultimately defines the very physical component of life, where we have the opportunity to enjoy.
"Swimming" is the only way by which this encoded information may be transmitted to the destination. Actually describes the mobility of sperm, meaning that it can move independently. The ability to swim, the sperm owes its tail with a sheath of mitochondria. Due to the intracellular structure they are smaller than cells, which are and their task is to convert the various nutrients in the body into energy. Thanks to these features, mitochondria are able to perform a variety of useful things, for example, to ease the hangover.
Life cycle of sperm
after Getting a General idea about the physical structure of the sperm, we can learn how they appear, spend their days and participate in the birth of a new life.
the Production of sperm, or spermatogenesis
Thirteen years of age for men (and slightly younger for women) marks the beginning of puberty and, consequently, the production of sperm in men. The creation of new male sex cells takes 64 to 72 days.
Men have always and ahead of schedule to produce new sperm, during each ejaculation emits roughly a quarter of a billion sperm. The body is not easy to maintain such a busy mode, and therefore extremely important to maintain a healthy lifestyle to always keep your gun in readiness.
the Sperm begin their lives in two glands located in the scrotum just under the penis. For a start, they pass through the network of the testis and conducting tubules to quickly get to the epididymis where at the time and still are. Sperm are stored in the head, then the body and finally the tail of the epididymis. As you progress through the epididymis they change significantly, gaining mobility, a new form and passing through other physical transformation. Remaining in the epididymis, the sperm Mature to the point of readiness to enter, and then mixed with seminal fluid and erupt.
during the growth of these future soldiers of the iron fertilization process, known as the anterior pituitary, produces hormones responsible for hair growth breast men (follicle-stimulating hormone — FSH) and a low tone of voice (luteinizing hormone — LH), as well as other characteristic features that distinguish him from women.
the Path of sperm
When sperm are ready to go to the outside world, they move in seminiferous ducts and accumulate in the urethra. On the way to the seminal fluid (used by sperm as a vehicle) that adds a number of important ingredients. Seminal vesicles contribute fructose (sucrose) and prostaglandins, and together these ingredients support and regulate the health of male germ cells during movement. The prostate gland produces a non-acidic fluid that gives semen a distinctive color, and kuperova gland produces mucus that acts as lubricant.
the male Body has a mechanism to neutralize the acidity of urine which may remain in the urethra. All these different fluids and sperm form the fluid known as semen that erupts from the body after a series of muscle movements that are generated during the excitation and further stimulation. When the body approaches a state of orgasm associated with the release of spermatozoa in the seminal fluid, all of the muscles that control the prostate, urethra and testicles, reduced. They raise the scrotum, and emit semen from the urethra at a speed of almost 45 km/h. the Whole process takes 3 to 10 seconds, but over the years of a man's life this period of time is reduced.
There is also the theory that muscle contractions associated with female orgasm, pushing out sperm from the vagina into the cervix, where the sperm more chance to reach the egg. In the vagina sperm can live for only about six hours, which is due to acidic vaginal secrets. The mucus secreted by the cervix when approaching ovulation, the more alkaline and create a favorable environment for sperm. Due to the viscosity of this mucus, resembling the consistency of egg white, sperm have the ability to easily move through the vagina to the cervix, which increases their chances to be in the right place for fertilization.
the Finish line
So how do sperm manage to pave the way from the vagina through the cervix and cunning weave of the fallopian tubes to female egg?
1. The fact that the sperm are moving like moths to a flame, because the female body has a certain "aroma" produced by the egg or perhaps the reproductive tract in General. This process is known as "chemoattraction, and through it the sperm cells swim actively seeking to participate in the biological lottery of procreation.
2. When they reached the egg, the sperm completely envelop its outer shell.
3. After contact, the egg is experiencing a number of fundamental changes that allow one sperm to penetrate the protective shell and join her.
4. Sometimes the sperm that have passed through chemical changes show increased motility and hyperactivity, and more-they're headed sharply jumps.
5. The sperm penetrates the outer membrane.
6. From this point the two nuclei fuse, creating a new and completely unique body.
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