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Many psychologists stand against the ideas of early child development. They argue that the child should not be deprived of their childhood and be exposed too early "intellectual" training from an early age. However, modern scientists have proved that many skills cannot be acquired if they are not mastered in childhood.
the history of the teachings of Maria Montessori
for the First time this idea was expressed by Maria Montessori in the early twentieth century. She was a teacher, psychologist, philosopher and the first woman in Italy which received a higher medical education. The key word in the pedagogy of Maria Montessori was the word "Freedom". The purpose of his method she saw in the education of independent and free, independently thinking individuals who can make decisions and take responsibility for them.
20 years of the twentieth century it has developed and proposed a theory of sensitive periods, that is periods in a child's life that are most receptive to certain types of activities. She had vast experience in dealing with children and she has proven the opponents of his theory that man will never be able with such ease to know certain information in a sensitive period because this is the time when the child opens the maximum possibilities for the development of something.
the Periods of development according to Maria Montessori,
, Maria Montessori argued that mental development starts in the University, and from the moment of birth and takes place in the first years of life. She identifies the following sensitive periods in a child's life:
Period for the development of movements
From birth to four years. If the child has lived this period, say in the animal world, the child did not move like ordinary people.
Period for order
two to three years. At this stage of life babies require around itself order. They carefully shift things from place to place, switch on and off the light. Often, parents don't even understand why children behave this way, but if at this time to support the aspirations of the kid, to put things in order for the child will be a good habit.
Period for the development of speech and language
From birth to six years promotes the development of children not only their native language, but even about 15 foreign languages.
the Period for sensory development
From birth to six years is the active development of all senses: hearing, sight, tactile sensations. Particularly sensitive are the palms soles of the feet. At this time it is particularly important to sculpt from clay, paint with hands and feet.
the Period of interest to the little things
From one year to two years. In this period Montessori advises to gather a collection of little things that would contribute to the development of fine motor skills.
Period for social development
From two to six years. At this age parents should give to the child a special environment for development, which would push the child to self-education, self-development, self-education.
the Basic principle of pedagogics of Montessori
Not much there "self", You ask? No, says Maria Montessori, because the basic principle of her pedagogy is that the adult can help the child, but only after the child himself will ask about it. Maria believed that every child is born intelligent and successful, parents should simply create the necessary conditions and to identify the most correct way to develop children's potential and teach him to explore the world.
To achieve this goal in practice, Montessori proposes to create special zones for the development of certain types of activities with appropriate visual material. At the beginning of the last century opened the first Montessori school, there reigns a special developing environment, where there is no unnecessary item. A distinctive feature of this school was that the classes did not have desks, which is limited to physical and cognitive activity of the child, Montessori had replaced the Desk light portable chairs and mats, which the child could transfer anywhere. The important thing to learning is not textbooks and manuals, and the child, unique and unique. And every child has the right to individual training system. But how could she train on the individual program 40 children at a time? She simply gave each child the opportunity to develop a programme of learning, children themselves choose what and when to do it in the educational environment: to count, to read, to plant a flower, to work out geography or history. In Montessori school there is no division into classes in the group are children of different ages, the youngest looking at the seniors, take example from them, and the older children help beginners get started, teach them how to play educational games, show numbers and letters, children here are learning from each other, and what is the role of the teacher?
the Areas of child development
the Teacher carefully looks after the children and is suitable when you need his help. Maria Montessori in her school identifies the following areas for development:
the Area of practice. This is an area where children learn to live in a social environment. Here you can really to wash linen, to iron with a hot iron and cut vegetables with a sharp knife. Area of sensor technology. Here are the didactic materials that have different shape, color, size, weight, different surface, odor and taste. Area of mathematics that includes the relevant study materials. Tongue area. This zone includes the following manuals, as the movable alphabet, rough letters, word cards. Maria Montessori believed that the letter the child begins reading when our eyes run through the words – this is the tab of writing skills, special moves look for the line. Area of space. This area involves not only the planets and stars, it includes knowledge of geography, biology. With the help of terrain models and materials in biology, the child acquires a holistic view of the world.
you Can say a lot about the methodology of the Italian teacher, but the basic principle of its training programs is to teach children self-education, self-education, and adults need to help children in exercising their individuality.
the Disadvantages of methods of Maria Montessori
But in spite of all the advantages of this technique, their flaws, unfortunately, are available.
the Methods of Maria Montessori, developing analytical thinking, logic, fine motor skills, that is responsible for what the left hemisphere of the brain, almost not paying attention to the development of the right hemisphere. The school is not playing in spontaneous creative play, here they are considered useless, hindering intellectual development. This pedagogy rejects and children's artistic creativity, because the child is too young to understand the beautiful and the ugly, and the departure of the child into a fantasy world caused by desire to look inward and to escape from reality, and it is not acceptable for this approach, as creativity in the understanding of Montessori, this tool works on reality.
the System of development of children on the techniques of Maria Montessori is not for every child. For example, a child who suffers from autism, in this self-development approach can further inward. Conversely, very noisy hyperactive child would be extremely uncomfortable to feel this atmosphere, because it is difficult to manage their emotions and cope with their behavior. Gifted children who have more developed right hemisphere, are unlikely to find application for their talents and realization of their creative abilities, as Montessori pedagogy does not pay due attention to development of creative thinking.
But in spite of this, the absolute advantages and benefits of this treatment are obvious and proved by time. And although this program is designed for kindergartens and schools, many aspects of Montessori pedagogy can be applied at home.
But the main thing is, and the fact that the key word in education is "free", free-thinking educated man who is steadily moving towards its goal, able to take responsibility for themselves and for their actions and respect the freedom of others.
a Documentary film about the life of Montessori
the Methods of Maria Montessori. VIDEO
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