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Use or lose

The scientific approach 02.12.2017 at 17:14

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It's pink. When you look out of the car it seems to be right on the road outside of the sidewalk lies a head of a cow. If not for this sudden obsession, it seems that going on the highway in a shopping area of London in a classic English cab. Several hundred of them painted in wild pink, and brought here, in Baku, in anticipation of the European games 2015, a Taxi driver, whose today more passengers than the remaining teeth was undoubtedly a man with a rich life experience, but judging by the terrible shaking in the car, moving along a dirt road on the outskirts of the Azerbaijani capital, its driving experience is unlikely to reach 10 000 hours.

the Neuroscientist, armed with a camera fMRI would confirm that we were not lucky with kabminom. The fact that London taxi drivers were among the first to demonstrate what changes occur in the brain under influence practice. To obtain a license — even today, in the era of satellite navigation and services, such as Uber, they must pass a rigorous selection test on knowledge of London. To cope with the test, the applicants are obliged to learn by heart an enormous amount of information about a complex system London streets.

it Turned out that in the process of remembering they have changed the size of the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for spatial reasoning and memory. More precisely, in London taxi drivers the hippocampus is much more than ordinary people, and its size, as it turns out, depends on the number of years of driving experience.

With the development of technology imaging of the brain in the last decade, scientists have made progress in understanding the processes occurring in the brain during practice. In a way the brain behaves like a muscle: if it is used, it increases in size if not decreasing. So maybe the phrenologists were wrong.

a Professional athlete provide not only a powerful biceps. Those same golfers can have very different dimensions, however competent neuroscientist to discover them by the characteristic of neural architecture. In 2009 a group of Swiss scientists repeated the experiment Erikson, taking up violin instead of 40 people with different levels and experience the game of Golf. Ten of them were professional golfers, ten were a handicap from 0 to 14, and another ten or 15 to 36, and the remaining ten have never in my life have never played Golf, not even mini-Golf (remember, in Golf, the lower the value of the handicap, the higher the class of the player).

the Researchers did not pull the last group on the field, not to waste time, and asked a few questions the other three groups: when they started and how many total hours, in their opinion, they played up until this point. As you might guess, the professionals started at an earlier age than other two groups (Professionals began to engage in age 13.1 years, participants from groups 1-14 handicap is 14.5 years, and with a handicap 15-36 — 19). But the biggest difference concerned the amount of time given to the game. From the weakest group on average was 758 hours, more advanced turned 3207 hours, and professionals gave a mind-blowing 27 415 hours of practice.

in Other words, if conduct on the field eight hours a day, including weekends and holidays, to reach such a level, it will take almost 10 years. The average age of a group of professionals — 31.

as a result of training for such a long time there have been major changes. To such conclusion researchers when subjected to brain scans of the participants for changes in the gray matter. It consists of bodies and processes of neurons, and the golfers of the two best groups it was greater than in other subjects. The increase in grey matter could be observed in different parts of the frontal and parietal lobes, responsible for controlling body movements. That is, these parts of the brain literally grew on the background of long-term practices.

Scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing have come to similar results, comparing the brains of professional divers in the water jumping and those who were not engaged in this sport. It turned out that the sportsmen of the thickness of the crust in some areas, including those that play an important role in the perception of biological movements, more. According to the researchers, thickening of the crust in these areas may be due to the fact that these athletes more clearly perceive the movement performed by other people. The ability to learn through observation — a critical skill for divers in the water, this is the key to their own professional development. Accordingly, more experienced athletes the cerebral cortex in the place thicker.

the Principle of learning through observation is very important in the process of acquiring practical skills. Thus, mirror neurons and the phenomenon of neuroplasticity help us understand how athletes improve their skills, and learn to predict the actions of competitors.

Clowns and war

to begin to change the brain requires surprisingly little time. Above we talked about the values of the order of several thousand hours of practice for several years, but a group of researchers from Germany found that when we master a new skill, the changes in our brain due to its plasticity can occur in just a couple of months. The researchers conducted fMRI brain jugglers. To participate in the study, they invited artists, so they never had to pull the clown from the arena and herded into a metal tube scanner (I wonder how many of them would fit?)

First, scientists have scanned the brain of 24 artists, and then half of them have been given the job for three months learning to juggle three balls. Three months later, had a re scan and found those who learned to juggle, a characteristic increase in the volume of gray matter. Three months later, during which they were forbidden to juggle at all — no burning torches, no scimitars, but the MRI showed that the volume of gray matter began to decrease.

the Conclusion that the brain behaves like a muscle not only in the sense that it is increasing in certain places, if its a good practice, but that it decreases if the acquired skill is not used. Of course, in reality everything is more complicated. And to understand what processes occur in the course of increasing or decreasing of volume in certain brain areas, it is necessary to dig a little deeper. At first glance it seems that neural circuits in the brain are confused about how casually rolled Christmas garland, but actually they are arranged very logically. Information about the object located in the upper right corner of the visual field is processed in the area immediately adjacent to treatment area information about the object located in the field of view right in the middle.

Other areas of the brain, including primary motor cortex, arranged in a similar way. If you move the electrode to a particular point of this area of the brain can cause contraction of the muscles of the little finger. And if a little to shift the electrode will be reduced when muscles are the ring finger on the same arm. The first map, which shows the relative location of sections of the cerebral cortex, was the canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield.

In 1940-1950-ies he has developed and applied a method of treatment of epilepsy, dubbed the Montreal procedure. The method in the destruction of neurons in areas of the brain where the tumor disease. For detection of this lesion Penfield used electrical stimulation of different areas of the cortex. The patient remained awake under local anesthesia, accordingly, the surgeon can observe his reaction. This technology is used today in some cases for removal of a brain tumor. With this method, the neurosurgeon can monitor the progress of the operation not to accidentally miss the vital brain centers. On the Internet there are videos which show how patients talk, sing and even play the guitar right during operation. Using your method, Penfield could be one of the first to observe the relationship between different parts of the cortex and parts of the human body. As a result, he mapped the sensory and motor cortex, called the "motor homunculus" (see below), parts of the body which is in proportion with their corresponding receptive fields of the cerebral cortex.

to obtain a visual representation of the receptive field, the easiest way is to conduct a little experiment. Ask a friend to close his eyes and tap his palm with two fingers between 2-3 cm. Ask touch how many fingers he felt. Then repeat the experience with one finger, with three, alternate different combinations. In most cases, the friend will answer correctly.

Then change the distance between the fingers: the smaller it is, the harder the subject is to understand the number of contact points. Try to determine the distance at which your friend will not be able to accurately guess how many fingers you touched it — one or two. This distance will be the size of the receptive field of the sensory system on his palm.

Try to repeat the experiment on another body part — say, on the shoulder or back. Now the subject will be much harder to distinguish between the touch of multiple points at a short distance. The reason is that in these places the skin is less sensitive than the palm, respectively, and the receptive fields there anymore.

the Central area of the retina is represented in the visual cortex much more area than the periphery, like the sidebar on the city map where the center is depicted on a larger scale. In terms of tactile sensations to the fingertips of connected much wider cortical area than the same size area of skin on the back, so the fingers are much more sensitive than, say, back. All the above applies to motor cortex. Fingers are much more flexible toes and respond to commands of the brain is much more accurate as they are represented in the brain larger area of the cortex. Found this schematic reflection on the motor homunculus (quite unpleasant to look at the picture, I must say), which since the experiments of Penfield has remained almost unchanged.

these zones are strictly limited: first, they can overlap one another, and secondly, thanks to neuroplasticity, can grow and shrink in size. In another study involving violinists was first shown that professionals a map of the brain really looks different, and the reason is a long practice. Since the 1950s, when Penfield conducted his experiments, technology has leaped forward, so now no longer need to run people in the brain electrodes and force them to play the violin.

the Primary motor cortex: 1 — hip; 2 — trunk; 3 — hand (except brushes); 4 brush; 5 — foot; 6 — person; 7 language; 8 — larynx

Today, use technology, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The method involves holding the coil with electric current over the patient's head; the resulting magnetic field can stimulate or inhibit the excitation of neurons. When the coil passes over the motor cortex, the effect is almost similar stimulation using electrodes. But if at the same time to scan the machine fMRI, it is possible to determine exactly which muscles are connected, certain portions of the brain.

In this particular case, researchers were more interested in the muscles of the left hand, as her fingers of the violinist presses the strings to the fingerboard, and how he pushes them, depends what kind of sound will publish the tool — delighting the ear with the melody or ugly, to the bone chilling screech. The violin virtuosos of the movement should be quick, confident and clear. Scientists worked in parallel in laboratories in Germany and Birmingham (Alabama, USA), found that the fingers of the left hand of violinists are represented in the brain larger area than in the control group. At the same time, the corresponding region for the right hand in both groups were the same. Moreover, the same was the part of the brain that controls movement of the thumb of the left hand, because the violin he just covers the neck of the fretboard without making any other movements.

so, over the years of practice brain professional violinists has undergone structural changes. There was even a correlation between the degree of reorganization of the cortex areas responsible for movement of muscles of the left hand, and the age at which each of the subjects began studying the violin: the sooner it happened, the greater was the change.

the Obtained conclusions are applicable to athletes. The racket of Roger Federer, of course, is not a work of art, like the Stradivarius, but the years of training and competing on the court caused similar changes in his brain. We can safely say that the area of the cortex controlling the right hand, Federer is considerably greater than that of the tennis player-Amateur.

In 2013, after the fall sports forms, Federer decided to change his racket and, following the then trend among the elite in the world of men's tennis, chose a racket with a larger area of the string surface. "Racket is the most important piece of equipment for the tennis player, says Darren Cahill, a former professional player, The New York Times, dedicated to the transition of Federer. — You need to understand it. To know her. To trust her. It is like a family member. History about how the players do not leave the racket in a dream, is true. We see the racket more often than anyone in my life".

Spending this amount of time with equipment like tennis rackets, we are launching the change process in your brain. A group of scientists from Australia analyzed the projection of the wrist muscles to the cerebral cortex in five of the top badminton players. The study showed that these athletes size sootvetstvuyu5 ing projections more than those who from time to time playing badminton in the company, not to mention those who are never holding any rackets.

With the increasing size of the area of the cortex associated with a particular muscle or group of muscles, and increasing degree of sensitivity with which these muscles can be consciously controlled. Many people find it difficult to move the ring finger to the little finger is left alone, however, pianists or guitarists it usually turns out better. If you bind to each other, two adjacent fingers, so they can only move together, and leave it for some time, and after you remove the rope, you will not be able to move them separately, because the brain has managed to be a slight reorganization.

the place of the usual equipment the brain is also rebuilt. After Federer took another racket in his motor cortex began to be some changes. When Rory McIlroy signed a multi-million dollar contract with Nike, he almost immediately changed clubs, balls and other equipment, after which his game was a failure. He was able to return to its previous level only after some time. From the point of view of neurophysiology, this time it took his brain, or rather parts of the cortex responsible for the appropriate muscles to carry out a microscopic adjustment to adapt to the smallest changes in the shape and weight of the putter.

Such changes in the brain may begin very quickly. The size of the bark is not a constant value; adjacent areas may grow at the expense of each other, to overlap one another. We talk with Billy Morgan during his recovery after major surgery on the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee. He can not sit still, he wants to get back to active training, but they don't allow him to run and jump. "I find it very hard to sit still, he laments. — I say I won't be able to skate, but maybe I'll run away to a fellow whose house was close to here, and then... I just go crazy when I'm stuck in the gym and doing leg press".

Billy will not be able to get back on a snowboard for six months. Then, when he for the first time after a forced break will rise the snow-covered slope, he was not immediately able to perform the tricks that he did before. The sense of stagnation and loss of form in athletes after injury is due to the same plasticity of the brain, only now it works in the opposite direction: if the connection between neurons for a long time are not used, they atrophy just like muscles. Early in his career snowboarder Morgan also did the breaks between seasons for six months, after the first few days he felt stagnation in the muscles, but now this feeling will accompany him longer because his level before injury was very high. "I'll have to re-learn old tricks gradually, and that's a problem, he explains. — To again to learn some tricks, takes a lot of time, but sometimes landing after a single jump has to fight endlessly. We need to stop and decide what tricks you can use to roll them on in training".

Now the head of Morgan there is a war for territory. When a person breaks a leg and some time it doesn't load, the area of the brain responsible for control of the feet, is absorbed by neighboring regions. Various studies of patients who were amputated certain limbs, show that of the neighboring region of the brain expanded at the expense of the region associated with an amputated limb.

The battle for neural tissue is conducted according to the principle of "all against all" or in this case "use it or lose it", as it is possible to lose part of the pitch for playing cricket in a public Park if there are other company plays more actively.

Scorers and gastropods

When in 1999, Manchester United made a Golden hat-trick, winning three tournaments in a row, with their phenomenal success, the team was largely obliged to the most brilliant attacking Duo in modern football history. Andy Cole and Dwight Yorke, the two have scored in the season 53 goals. Some kind of telepathic connection between them remained outside, not to mention the fact that the author of The Guardian's Rob Smith called "a sort of powerful empathy, which can be seen in sentimental comedies". Before the match in the Premier League with Southampton in October 1998, Cole and York and held in the same squad just one game. At the 11th minute of the match Cole gets the ball on the left flank and makes a canopy to the near post for city. That tackle fell on the pitch, but manages to send the ball into the net. After that two of the attackers continued to terrorize the defense of the opponents until the end of the season.

Beyond the stadium, they quickly established a friendly contact. "Andy helped me find housing, shows the city — remember York 15 years later. — He even invited me to dinner with his family. I have then in Manchester had no friends, so Andy was the one who helped me. And it was very handy when we had to play together. We had a full understanding."

If Cole with York so well did not get along, they would be able to score so many goals? Or, perhaps, not zakatil then that first ball in Southampton, there would have been such a wonderful friendship. It's not just fortune telling, and the illustration of one of the key principles of neuroplasticity. Because our thoughts and memories are born out of connections between billions of nerve cells, to change them, you need to change the strength of the connections between individual neurons.

the Neuron looks like a tree with roots, trunk and crown. The "roots" of a neuron is long and thin, they are called dendrites. Their function is receiving signals from other neurons. The long arm of a neuron is called the axon, it is much thicker than the dendrites. Closer to its end the axon has branches, through which it transmits signal to other neurons. Between the axon of one nerve cell and the dendrite of the next a small gap, the synapse. The electric pulse itself can not overcome this gap, thus when the neuron is activated it releases into the synaptic space a number of neurotransmitters — substances which preodolev out this space, reach another neuron and transmit a pulse, resulting in its activation. When one neuron causes another to fire, or when two neurons are activated almost simultaneously, the connection between them is enhanced due to chemical changes in the synapses. So if two neurons are activated together, they become associated with each other.

the Idea is not new. It was first expressed by Sigmund Freud, but today is known as the Hebb rule, the names of the canadian neuropsychologist Donald Hebb, who formulated this rule in his book "Organization of behavior: a neuropsychological theory" (The Organisation of Behavoiur). The chemical rationale for the rule was derived in the 1960s, after the neurologist and psychiatrist Eric Kandel took up the dissection of a giant marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Gastropods of this species have one unique feature: they number only about 20,000 nerve cells, and they are unusually large and transparent, making them easy to learn. Localizing a neural circuit mollusk, Kandel was able to see what changes occur in synapses during activation of the mechanisms of memory.

the Communication between neurons is by neurotransmitters — substances that are released by the transmitting neuron, through the synapse and reach the receptors of the receiving neuron, exciting it to an electrical impulse.

When a pulse occurs in two neurons at the same time, the connection between them is enhanced. Aktiviziruyutsya a special gene that causes structural changes in both neurons. The first starts to produce more neurotransmitters, and in the second there are more receptors designed for these specific neurotransmitters. Thus, opening a door, we both hew a few new ones. In one study, Kandel and his colleagues found that during this process, the number of receptors in one neuron may increase more than two times.

these processes underlie the mechanisms of learning and memory. When a person performs some action or experiencing some sensation, he activates a certain chain of neurons, each of which affects the next. Their joint activation strengthens the connection between them: the release of neurotransmitters of any type leads to an increase in the number of receptors and, consequently, to the emergence of new synaptic connections. In the end, changing the map of the cerebral cortex. However, this change does not end there. In every sport there are legends about those who remained in the hall after practice. David Beckham, who played for Manchester United, was just such a player. After the training, as long as he independently mastered the skill of performing free kicks that helped him become one of the greatest performers of standards in the history of football. The Englishman Ronnie O'sullivan, has earned fame as a great snakebite, himself a right-hander, coached the blows with his left hand until, until I learned how to confidently perform them in the game.

the Positive effect of the practice is observed once the skill is successfully used, because it increases the productivity of the brain. For example, a person years to perform a specific job. He knows what is required of him, because it copes well with all. Moreover, the passage of time he does not have to work so hard as before, but the quality of it does not suffer. Exactly the same happens with the neurons of the brain.

In the process of mastering the skill increases the size of the projection of the part of the body that is involved in the implementation of this skill, to the brain. Gradually, however, the number of neurons and the amount of energy required to implement this activity, decrease as the brain learns to use the muscles more efficiently. Scientists from Colorado have found that even once the skill is fully mastered (in this case, the subject learned to control a mechanical arm), the process of saving energy continues. This is because the brain begins to use its resources more efficiently. When we master a new motor skill, increase the projection of the corresponding part of the body at a map of the cerebral cortex. Subsequently, however, the number of neurons involved in the implementation of this skill decreases as the muscles begin to work with greater efficiency. A neuroscientist at the University of Pittsburgh Peter Stricom a study was conducted in which monkeys learned two different skills, one of which they repeated from memory, and for the development of the second they had to react in a certain way on the point appears on the screen. In both cases, the animal brain recorded the activity of the same number of neurons, only action from memory it was less energy, because the monkeys it was already familiar.

this can be illustrated by the game of stars of world sport. Just look at how Lionel Messi confidently pass controls how economical his movements are, how easily he touches the ball, and compare with a player of the second division. Notice the smooth movements of a fielder in cricket or baseball at performance of a throw, and then try to do the same. Or look at how Roger Federer executes a forehand: it looks like his hand is floating on air when he puts the winning point in the match. The name of the Brazilian player Neymar rose to prominence in world football prior to his multi-million transfer from Santos to Barcelona, where Messi played. His father was a footballer, and as a child Neymar played Futsal and street football. When the boy was only 11 years old, he was spotted at the youth Academy of Santos and was invited to the club. So, given how much time he devoted to football, we can confidently say that their 10 000 hours, he worked for a long time.

In 2014, in Japan conducted a study to determine how it increased the efficiency of the brain of Neymar through many years of practice. The study was conducted on the fMRI machine: the player had to make a rotational motion of the leg below the knee alternately clockwise and counterclockwise by changing the direction of rotation every few seconds.

The study also involved three other professional football players, two swimmers among the leaders, as well as a football player lover. It turned out that during the execution of the task level of brain activity of the players was lower than that of the swimmers, professional football players is lower than that of the lover, and the lowest he got Neymar.

Scientists believe that the reason is that Neymar has for many years played barefoot, having tried about 50 different types of balls. The result is a change in his brain: strengthened connections between neurons, and the area of the cortex responsible for the movements of the legs increased and also began to function more effectively. This phenomenon is often called muscle memory, but the high efficiency of neurons is only one side of a memory. The other involves a high speed of operation, and here the important role played by the myelin — lipid rich white matter of the brain.

Auto(Mato)ban

Why athletes from a certain age the decline begins? It is clear that a body that so many years were forced to work to the limit, says it's the last straw. However, athletes begin to sum up not only the body but the head: the reaction is not the same as before, and the period during which they can compensate for the loss of speed at the expense of experience, is limited.

the Neuron is similar to an electric wire. If it is properly insulated, the current would flow faster and without unnecessary losses. For neurons in the role of the insulator is the myelin. Learning, as we have seen, is determined by the changes in the synapses; myelin also consolidates the results of learning. It forms a sheath around neurons like an insulator around the copper wire. Thus, the nerve impulse is not lost when passing through a neuron, and the speed becomes higher. "Thanks to myelin a narrow path, which is a signal, turn into the ultra-fast autobahns, writes Daniel Coyle in his book "the Code of talent" (The Talent Code). — Nerve impulses, which "dragged along" at a speed less than 1 m/s, after the formation of the myelin sheath "fly" at speeds of the order of 90 m/s".

the Appearance of a layer of myelin around the path of the pulse is comparable with the change telephone Internet connection on broadband. In addition, the shell enables you to reduce the time gap between the signals, which in combination leads to an increase in speed of information processing in 3000 times. As we have seen, the key difference between athletes and ordinary people lies in their ability to advance to read the important information and quickly make an accurate decision. The main thing here is speed, and speed is the myelin.

When you activate a neuron is not only strengthening its relations with its neighbors, the process also attracts cells of the oligodendrocyte, which on the CT look like glowing green dots. They produce the myelin layers surrounding the nerve cell. All this happens extremely slowly considering the scale of the speeds at which neural networks are moved pulses.

"This is one of the most complex and amazing examples of cell-cell interaction, says Dr. Douglas fields on the pages of "the Code of talent". — And the slowest. Every part of the nervous fibers may be coated to 40 to 50 layers of myelin, and the formation of one layer takes from several days to several weeks. Imagine how much time it will take just myelinization of the axon, and then the entire chain, which can involve thousands of neurons. It's like insulating a transatlantic cable."

Now I understand where did the number 10 000 is the number of hours required to master any skill to a professional level. It is not enough just to create a neural pathway — chain of nerve cells, implementing the algorithm performing the required operations in long-term memory, needs to "expand the channel" of the transmission pulses, that is to form the myelin sheath, which provides high speed and efficiency of such transfer. "Skill formation is the process of isolating neural pathways through the shell which increases in size in response to certain signals" — this thought is emphasized repeatedly in the book of Coyle.

meanwhile, as we learn in part II of our book, the path to mastering a skill and you can cut to accelerate neuroplasticity. Optimizing the signals sent to the brain during practice, you can achieve the highest level of neuroplasticity, to accelerate the formation of the myelin sheath and bypass the rule of 10 000 hours. Billy Morgan is living proof that it's possible. He began to train in the snow just nine years ago. "I went skiing with a class at school. At the same time a classmate wanted to try to slide down and dragged me along on a slope with artificial turf in Southampton. I don't particularly like it, — says Morgan. But he soon got sick snowboarding. — The next two years we just would not let go. In the snow first time I've ridden in only 17 years".

At the 2014 Olympics Morgan, who was then 23 years old, took 10 th place. While he had much less experience snowboard equipment directly on the snow than the other participants. But by the time he learned to perfectly control his body in the air, and this is one of the main keys to success in today's slopestyle. The fact that the first Morgan was engaged in gymnastics. Was it that his 17 years, he took the troupe one of the circus in Germany. ("In principle, it's not too late," he laughs.)

"I think the more into diving, the more confident you feel and the more likely you are to get out when something goes wrong, he said. — I got it when I was doing acrobatics. Somewhere in the age of from four to eight I went to the gym, and up to fourteen on acrobatics and it was akin to fanaticism: every day after school and on Saturdays".

Many snowboarders for development control in the air practicing on the trampoline. Morgan has in this respect already had a huge advantage. "In modern snowboarding is very important to the quality of perform tricks in the air, basic skills for this are laid by other sports. You long to jump on the trampoline to develop this feeling. I have already had it deep in the subcortex, thanks to acrobatics. I didn't realize it, but my gymnastics background has largely determined my further career as a snowboarder".

Today Morgan can compete on equal terms with those who had been snowboarding for much longer than him and defeat them. The reason is that he is not putting before itself such purpose, initially, regularly perfected one of the key mental skills needed in this sport. Moreover, he found a way to develop this skill much more effectively than if only trained directly on the track. Important the content and quality of training. In the original formulation of the rules of the 10,000 hours refers to the "systematic practice"; therefore, it makes no sense to stay in the comfort zone. Training the same trick for several thousand hours to become an expert in only one area of this trick.

the Systematic practice makes critically assess their own achievements and constantly feel on the limit. It allows you to be in the perfect point where can create and strengthen new connections between neurons and to form the desired chain of nerve impulses. "Being raised in conditions when we are forced to slow down, to make and correct mistakes — what happens when you go up on the ice, and then postalias and stumbling, we eventually quietly developing speed and agility movements," writes Coyle. The brain undergoes changes regardless of what we do, only in adults these changes are usually fixed only if we consciously pay anything much attention.

On neuroplasticity is also affected by the nature of the organization practices. Studies have shown that the depth of the changes in the brain can be increased through concentrated learning. This can best be illustrated by the example of immersion in the target language environment. After just a month somewhere in the French provinces far from major cities, you can learn the language much better than doing the books every week for several years. All because in the first case, the person has to get out of the comfort zone, being in the same ideal point, where training will be most effective.

Professional athletes are already immersed in their usual training schedule, but Amateurs such rate will only benefit. Billy Morgan early in his career, first six months worked, then the next six months engaged in snowboarding — perfect conditions for concentrated learning. Thus he was able to achieve the desired changes in the brain and to improve its efficiency much faster than if he had distributed the time between work and workouts more evenly.

The speed of learning of the brain can also be increased through physical activity. Physical activity is one of the best catalysts for neuroplasticity. The impact of the physical exercises are truly great. They help to better cope with stress, reduce anxiety and depression and increase the efficiency of learning and memory at once on a number of aspects. This effect is due to a sharp rise in the level of protein known as brain-derived neurotrophic factor brain (BDNF) in the blood during exercise. This protein causes the growth of neurons and triggers adaptive mechanisms in the synapses. "Scientists have long established that, if the handle of the BDNF neurons in a Petri dish, the cells automatically form new processes, demonstrating the same structural growth required in the process of learning. I believe that BDNF acts on the brain as well as superadobe seedlings," writes Dr. John Raiti in to

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