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About the existence of toxic substances under the code name “Newbie” Vil Mirzayanov, a Soviet and Russian chemist, more than 30 years worked in the State research Institute of organic chemistry and technology (GosNIIOKhT) on the highway of Enthusiasts in Moscow, said in September 1992. Almost simultaneously published the article “the Poisoned policy” in the newspaper “Moscow news” article in the American edition of The Baltimore Sun called “Former Soviet scientist argues that the Gorbachev regime has created in 1991 a new nerve gas”. Mirzayanov along with a chemist and environmental activist, the author of many materials about the Soviet chemical and biological weapons Lev Fedorov came in the correspondent paragraph of The Baltimore Sun in Moscow and told the to will England on the planned publication in “the Moscow news” – they decided that the parallel publication in the Western edition will be able to some extent to protect. In June 1990 President of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev and U.S. President George Bush Sr. signed an agreement under which both countries have ceased production of new chemical weapons and proceeded to the destruction of accumulated stockpiles. However, said Vil Mirzayanov, the document (at the time, however, not yet ratified) have not stopped development. In the series “Rookie” of the new version particularly dangerous nerve agent, up to 10 times more toxic than VX gas, created in NIOHT in 1991. Moreover, in April 1991, the leaders of the project – the Director of the Institute and two army chief was awarded for successful work on creation of chemical weapons the order of Lenin by the decree of Mikhail Gorbachev. England later recalled that the Western experts with whom he consulted prior to publication of material about the statements Mirzayanov about the existence of a “Newbie” with great skepticism. However, the monthly U.S. correspondent could lend more substance to the material for which you talk with other people associated with the program of development of the Soviet chemical weapons, in particular with Eduard Sargsyan, participated in the organization of trials "Newbie" in laboratory animals. Later, the journalist was able to meet with Andrei Zheleznyakov in the same NIYHT who has been exposed to a “Newbie”. The poisoning substance a-232 (or “Novichok-5”) happened in 1987, because of the broken fan. Zheleznyakov felt sick, he started having vivid hallucinations. The unconscious scientist was rushed to the Institute of ambulance behalf of sklifosofskiy. More than a week Zheleznyakov was in the hospital on the verge of life and death, in the next six months he could not walk, suffered from depression and an inability to concentrate, couldn't even read. He never returned to work and are not fully recovered from poisoning, died in 1993. Doctor Zheleznyakova in Institute of Sklifosovsky Evgenie Vedernikov told an American correspondent that to save the patient was difficult, but not impossible – but just because the treatment was able to begin almost immediately. Vil Mirzayanov in publications in "Moscow news" and in an interview with The Baltimore Sun first reported on the development of toxic substances (S) nerve of a series of “Beginner”, which was carried out in the framework of the program “Folio”, involves the creation of chemical warfare agents a new generation. The project “Folio” was launched in the late 1970s, and the first “Beginner”, or substance A-230, was synthesized by the chemist Volsky branch NIOHT Peter Kirpicheva and tested on laboratory animals in 1981. Mirzayanov said that the discovery was made Kirpicheva when working on the dissertation, but no awards for him, unlike many leaders, scientist received. In the following years were developed more advanced forms of poison, such as “Novice-5” (A-232), obtained in 1987 – they were poisoned Andrey Zheleznyakov. This option was the most promising: it is a binary with poison gas – that is, can be obtained by mixing two low-toxic components that can be safely stored separately. Other binary S in the USSR to create and failed. In the early 1990s continued to be a new version – “Novice-8 and Novichok-9”. The poison was tested on the ground in Shikhany, near Saratov, and in Nukus in Uzbekistan. 22 Oct 1992, a month after the release of the controversial publications, Vil Mirzayanov was arrested, but several days later released on his own recognizance. Through the year the scientist was again arrested, but soon released again. Finally, in 1994 the criminal case against him was dismissed “in connection with absence in its actions of structure of a crime”. At a time when Mirzayanov was under arrest in his defense were active, another former employee NIOHT – Vladimir Uglev, which is also publicly confirmed the existence of “Newbies”. In 1996 the scientist emigrated to the United States, where he published several books with memories and stories about the Soviet chemical weapons. One of them Mirzayanov quoted several documents included in the case file. Among them – note to staff NIYHT in the Department of economic security MB of the Russian Federation. Assuming that these documents are authentic, they directly confirmed that the program “Folio” and matter series of “Novice” – not a fantasy Mirzayanau. “... The Commission was guided by (...) the list of information constituting a state secret on the issue of "Folio", the authors write in one place, and another expressed more openly: "the Commission considers that in article "the Poisoned policy" published in the newspaper "Moscow news" No. 38, September 20, 1992 signed by vil Mirzayanov and Lev Fedorov, provides the following information constituting a state secret. 1. "At the State Union scientific research Institute of organic chemistry and technology (GOSNIIOKHT) was established as a new S. By his cunning ("combat characteristics"), it far surpassed the well-known VX, lose it is almost incurable" (column 2, paragraph 1). This information is true. In GOSNIIOKHT (currently GREEKT) is actually synthesized, studied and tested a number of new chemical compounds of different classes are far superior to VX (the substance, the armament of the United States) in complex combat characteristics, including the difficulty of treatment. According to reports, the armies of the countries with chemical weapons, analogues of the above substances is not available. Outfit these substances chemical munitions can significantly increase their efficiency. Thus, disclosed information about the latest development in the field of science and technology, able to enhance existing weapons (ammunition) which, in accordance with paragraph 83 paragraph 2 of PGS and section 5.3 List Minneftekhimprom are absolutely confidential and constitutes state secrets”. Officially the existence of “Newcomers” in the Arsenal of the USSR and Russia has never been confirmed. However, about a mysterious and highly toxic poison nerve again started talking in 1995 when I was poisoned a major banker and founder of public Association “Round table of business of Russia” Ivan Kivelidi. The businessman died from the poisons on the phone, he killed the Secretary (she did not touch that tube, but only a dusting in the office of the chief), and according to some, and a pathologist, reveals the body of Kivelidi. The investigation revealed that the poison was synthesized by employee branch NIOHT in Shikhany (it was here, according to Mirzayanov, was tested “Beginners”), who later sold the substance to the organizers of the crime. The chemist was subsequently given a suspended sentence for abuse of power and synthesis of hazardous substances without a registration and, according to Radio Liberty, he moved to Moscow in the apartment, purchased on information received from the criminals money. Killer and prospective customer, business partner, Kivelidi Vladimir Khutsishvili, received long prison terms. 12 March 2018, Prime Minister Theresa may said that the former GRU officer Sergey Skripal and his daughter was poisoned it with poison gas type “Beginner”. If the findings of the British experts are true, this is the third known case of poisoning with this poison after Andrei Zheleznyakov and Ivan Kivelidi. Member of the Federation Council of the Russian Federation, a veteran of the Soviet and Russian intelligence services, Ivan Morozov on the statements of Theresa may was quick to reply that “Russia has not only ceased production of nerve gases, including “Novice”, but also completely destroyed all of their stocks,” – thereby indirectly confirming that “Newbie” exists or at least existed in the military Arsenal of Russia.
Specialist on chemical weapons, a researcher of the French Foundation for strategic research Olivier LePic in the comments for the publication of the Present notice, which clearly say that when the assassination attempt on Sergei Skripal was used "Beginner" in the past, although the French experts believe that Theresa may would not make such statements without solid evidence. LePic said that a "Newbie" in the community of experts on chemical weapons say for many years, but know very little about him: not even certain that he has a base form of solid, liquid or gaseous. According to experts, given the alleged toxicity is a "Novice" to murder two people would have only several grams of the substance, which is relatively easy to hide when you move across the border. An antidote to the "Newbie" should be atropine, which is the universal antidote for all neurotoxins - but it must be applied as soon as possible after contact with poison, and even in this case, the body can get permanent damage, especially of the nervous system. "The incident plunged the experts on chemical weapons in shock,' said Olivier LePic. - However, the same shock we felt when, in 2006, polonium-210 was poisoned Alexander Litvinenko. It was just as unusual and just as discernible a direct link with Russia. Of course, we have to be careful blaming the assassination of Vladimir Putin and Russia, as if it was obvious. You need to stick to the facts, but considering all the circumstances, the only explanation is - Russia is once again sending a signal to the people he considers “traitors”: “if you betrayed the Motherland, we will find you and kill you, wherever you may be, under whose protection was, and he did it the worst way.” Could those who were preparing an attempt on Sergei Skripal rasschitat that traces of poison are not able to detect? British expert on toxins Alastair hay thinks so: "the Symptoms that were poisoned, could be covered. The victim received a lethal dose of nerve agent eventually die due to suffocation: lack of oxygen causes heart attack. One can imagine that in some cases this will not see the action of the poison. So, it is possible that the attacker was hoping that the murder will remain unsolved. But when poisoned other people around, it was unlikely." Hay also noted that we should not be surprised that he was not himself poisoned, the poisoner. For this it is enough to make the trivial hygienic practices predostorozhnosti. "Remember the recent history of VX gas poisoning half-brother of North Korean leader at the airport of Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. Two women who threw on the victim's face, the handkerchief, soaked with nerve poison, not poisoned, although they received no special training for the handling of substance. Moreover, they claimed to have been assured that help in a joke," said hay in a commentary to Radio Liberty. In an interview with "Voice of America" in 2013, Vil Mirzayanov explained what prompted him to speak publicly about the secret workings: “Russia seems to be built a democratic society, but I saw with horror that the military-industrial elite, has not changed its policy that is cheating the world community. Half a decade Moscow led the negotiations to conclude an international Convention banning chemical weapons. But the Convention was laid “mine” – was forbidden all the old chemical weapons, but no mention of new weapons. And we have developed a completely new generation of chemical weapons, began to produce, generals and civil generals receives the Lenin prize”. In his memoirs, the scientist says that in the late 1970s from conversations with retired officer of chemical troops Gennadiy Kostenko realized that combat poisonous substances, contrary to expectations, turned out to be extremely inconvenient and ineffective weapons, which despised even the military itself. “Hennadiy Ivanovych [Kostenko] was the first person that made me first take a critical look at the problem of the development and testing of toxic substances in the USSR.” In the future, Vil Mirzayanov became a consistent opponent of chemical weapons. However, recent events show that rational considerations are not able to keep those who want to use this weapon as a tool of terror.
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