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#Norse #mythology #godofwar April 20 will be a new God of War. The game will unfold in Scandinavia, where Kratos and his son will meet a variety of creatures and gods from Norse mythology. In this material we decided to remember what it is all about and what is the reflection of legends about Odin and the Torah and other beliefs of the northerners found in popular culture.
Huge role in the popularization of Norse mythology has played the Marvel comics. Them Asgard and other worlds with superheroes, aliens, and other fantastic characters. Because of the comic book of the Torah, the publisher has more than fifty years explores the myths, adapting them for their stories. Many of the characters from legends and tales of the Scandinavians appeared in Marvel comics — even those who in the myths was given a little time. Of course, the comics in this respect did not literally reproduce the mythology, and only rely on it — hence all the differences and divergences in interpretations.
You could meet mention how the whole Norse mythology as a whole and its separate elements in a variety of films, TV series, books, comics, games (apart from God of War (2018) ) and even in everyday life.
have You ever wondered where they went, for example, the names of the days of the week?
In several European languages they have evolved from names of Norse gods. For example, in English Tuesday — Tuesday is literally Tyr's Day (Day of Tyr, the AU and the son of Odin). Or Thursday — Thursday — literally Thor's Day (Day of Thor). Or another example: in the German language Friday — Freitag — derived from the name of goddess, Frigga (Frigg), that is, literally "Day of Frigge", the wife of Odin.
But it all started? Norse mythology — Germanic part, it was formed in the 5th century BC, long before Christianity. We will focus on Norse mythology and will not go into a retelling of the myths, because they are much more interesting to read by. And we will not delve into the differences between Norse mythology and beliefs of the Germanic peoples (they have, for example, Odin was called Wotan, although, in fact, it's the same God).
the history of the creation of the world, the Scandinavians are pretty funny. It all started with abyss in which there was nothing. It was called Ginnungagap, and on its edges there were two of the world (all nine of them, as you remember) — Niflheim (home of the frost giants) and Muspelheim (home of the fire giants, including the famous Surt). In the interaction of a spring in Niflheim and sparks of Muspelheim came the giant Ymir. He has created frost giants (the process will be omitted, but in a nutshell, it involved legs Ymir), which became the Jotuns. And yet at the same time with the Imir appeared cow Audumla. She gave birth to Buri, the progenitor of the gods, the Aesir, polesaw salt stones, covered with frost. His son became ber, father of Odin, Vili and Ve.
the Children of ber decided to rebuild the world order and killed the giant Ymir. From his body they had created another world of Midgard (Earth).
However, in the blood of their great-grandfather drowned and the cow, and almost all the frost giants. People Odin and his brothers created from trees. Man made from ash and woman from alder. The gods breathed life into them, calling the first humans Ask and Embla.
the Gods, of course, did not forget about themselves and created Asgard for the Aesir.
was Subsequently created worlds — Jotunheim (which is the new home of the giants-Jotuns), and Vanaheim — home of the gods-the Vanir (the differences of the Aesir and Vanir, later). Under Midgard is Svartalfheim — the world of dark allow (dwarves), and under it is the terrible world — HELHEIM, in fact, a local hell. On Midgard — Alfheim — the birthplace of the light allow (elves), and on the top of — Asgard (it, by the way, is the famous utopia — a place where the fallen in battle the warriors and feast there until the end of time).
All these worlds are in the world tree, the Yggdrasil. In a giant ash of the Scandinavians imagined the universe, and on its branches were all above the worlds.
Yggdrasil stands on three roots, each of which goes into some kind of world: one — to Asgard, the second in Jotunheim, and the third to Niflheim. And each root has its own magic source. For example, under the root in Asgard, the Norns live — sorceress who can see the future. And under the root in Jotunheim dwells the mightiest giant Mimir (by the way, during the war of the æsir and Vanir, he was beheaded, but One returned to the head of the giant the gift of speech). He guards the fountain of wisdom. Odin gave his eye in exchange for the opportunity to drink from the source, because Mimir did not let on to him without sacrifice.
And around Yggdrasil is full of giant creatures. For example, it gnaws the roots of the dragon Nidhogg, and at the top of the ash sits an eagle of Werfeli, with the universal wisdom. He and dragon are extremely dislike each other, but not to meet, use the squirrel Ratatosk to exchange insults.
All this information about the myths and legends of the Scandinavians gathered from two key works by the Elder and the Younger Edda (written in 1222-1225). What's interesting: the Elder Edda is the collection of Norse legends (which was written by an unknown in the 7th century on the basis of the handed down orally skaldic poetry).
But the Younger Edda is primarily a textbook of skaldic poetry, in which its Creator Icelandic poet and writer Snorri Sturluson had tips on how to master the skill using kenning — type of metaphor (e.g., "snake battle" = "spear").
it is believed that the Elder and Younger Edda were inspired by, for example, John Ronald Reuel Tolkien when he wrote including "the Lord of the rings". Certain similarity in the number of invented myths and tales of the Edda can be traced to a careful reading. However, it is not surprising that the writer drew inspiration from Norse mythology, because it is rich in stories and vivid images.
In the first place is, of course, gods. In Norse mythology, they are divided into the Aesir and Vanir.
the Main God-as — One, and this group includes many of his children — Thor, Tyr, Bragi, Balder, and others, as well as Loki, Forseti, Ull and Frigga with other goddesses. All these gods are mentioned in the prose Edda.
Vanir — another group of gods. They have long been at odds with the aces, but eventually made a truce. Among them — Njord, Freyr, Freya and Kvasir. They had to give the leading place in the Pantheon aces, what they long time could not accept.
Some gods like Odin, Thor, Loki and Heimdall, thanks to Marvel and kynoselen including became widely known. But there is something you might not know about them. For example, there is a funny story about the Mead of poetry. It is described in the Younger Edda. Once the dwarfs from the blood of Kvasir honey and made the Mead of poetry, but it took away the giants. The allfather decided to try to get this honey. Seducing the nice-the giantess, he persuaded her to give him some dessert, but on the road to Asgard, traveling in the guise of an eagle, One spilled part of honey. According to legend, the people who found and tried that is lost Each honey were talented poets and skalds, and those who ate the honey that came from the other side of the eagle, become mediocre poets.
Or the God of thunder. Did you know that Thor, according to the Older Edda, was married to the fertility goddess SIF? He had three children — a daughter Work from Seth, the son of magni from mistress-giant and the son of modi, whose origin is unknown (and in such frivolous behavior of the God of thunder was decent!).
by the Way, interestingly, in the famous legend of magni Ragnaroke it should become the new owner of the hammer Mjolnir, to his brother modi to create a new world.
And even Thor has a chariot with two flying goats — with their help, he travels between the worlds. And these guys are immortal. Thor was able to eat them, leaving only bones, and then to bless Mielnica, then they would be resurrected again.
Another interesting as — the God of war Tyr. Once he willingly gave his hand to the wolf Fenrir to dangerous son Loki (more on this later) can be linked fetters.
But the bright God Balder was one of the main victims of Loki. When Baldur began to overcome nightmares, Frigga took an oath from all things that nobody will hurt him. But mistletoe oath is not taken, than the God of deception and taken advantage of, by having a blind head to throw a spear of mistletoe at Balder during a match of the gods. Since the death of Baldr, and Loki was severely punished. According to the Elder Edda, Baldr returns after Ragnarok.
the God of trickery in Norse mythology differs markedly from the image from the Marvel comics. The most important and main difference is that he is not the brother of Thor and brother of Odin, but not by blood, God of deception — the son of ETANA.
Loki was regularly causing trouble to the gods-aces, for which he was quite severely punished.
For the murder of Balder, Loki was chained to a rock, and over the head was placed a snake, whose venom dripped of God in the face, causing terrible pain (it was the idea of the frost giant Skadi). The wife of Loki Sigyn held a bowl over him, but sometimes she had to move away to pour the poison, therefore, God of deception still suffered from pain.
by the Way, Loki was the second wife is a giantess Angrboda.
She gave birth to three children, the goddess Hel (later Queen of HELHEIM), a huge serpent Ermengarda (the legend of Ragnaroke that he will kill Thor, but will die himself) and the wolf Fenrir (according to the same legend, the wolf will kill Odin during Ragnarok).
Besides the gods already mentioned above, the races in Norse mythology mentions numerous mythical creatures. About some we have already said above, but there are other interesting creatures. For example, the dragon Fafnir, who was once a man, the son of a powerful sorcerer Hreidmar. Fafnir killed his father and brother to be the sole owner of the gold given to the family for the death of another son of Hreidmar. Fafnir, by the way, plays a key role in the famous "Nibelungenlied".
In Norse mythology, it all ends with Ragnarokum — the end of everything, destruction of the existing world system.
At the head of the forces of evil will be Loki and his children will kill many aces, but die themselves. Even the God of deceit cannot hide and will fall by the hands of Heimdall. But then reloads the whole universe. In this regard, Norse mythology is cyclical. After one life cycle of Ragnarok and the story starts again, so then again we come to the end of all things. And it will start the rebirth of the world from the return of the light of God Balder. Even people will again remain only two Liv and Lifthrasir, and they have to repopulate the entire Earth again.
Many researchers believe that Scandinavian mythology in the form in which it survived until our days, is heavily influenced by Christianity. Certain Parallels can indeed be done, for example, between the images of Balder and Jesus Christ or Loki and Lucifer.
However, we must understand that all these myths and legends were described through the lens of Christian perception, and it is likely that certain elements have been simplified and modified.
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