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Varlam Tikhonovich Shalamov (June 18, 1907 — January 17, 1982) is a Russian writer and poet of the Soviet era, the Creator of one of the most famous literary cycles of the Soviet prison camps.
Varlam Shalamov was born June 18 (July 1) 1907 in Vologda in the family of a priest, a man of progressive views. Mother Shalamov was a teacher. In 1914 he entered the school, but completed secondary education after the revolution. In 1923, after the end of the Vologda school of the 2nd stage, came to Moscow, worked as a Tanner at a leather factory in Kuntsevo. From 1926 to 1929 he studied at the faculty of Soviet law at Moscow state University.
February 19, 1929 Shalamov was arrested for participation in the clandestine University press in the printing of leaflets called "Lenin's Testament" and sentenced to three years in the camps. He served his sentence in Vecherkom camp (Northern Urals).
In January 1937, Shalamov was arrested again for "counterrevolutionary Trotskyist activities". He was sentenced to 5 years imprisonment and spent the time in Kolyma. 22 June 1943 it was re-sentenced to 10 years for anti-Soviet propaganda, which consisted in the fact that he called Bunin, a Russian classic.
In 1951 Shalamov was released from the camp, but initially couldn't return to Moscow.Since 1946, having completed an EMT course and began working at the Central hospital for prisoners on the left Bank of the Kolyma river and the forest "trip" loggers until 1953, Then lived in the Kalinin region, in the suburbs. Results repression of family breakdown and poor health. In 1956 (after rehabilitation) returned to Moscow.
In 1932 Shalamov returned to Moscow after the first period and began to publish in Moscow periodicals as a journalist. He also published several short stories. One of the first major publications — the story "the Three deaths of doctor, Austin" in magazine "October" (1936).
After the liberation in 1951 Shalamov returned to literary activity. The writer created his "Kolyma tales" from 1954 to 1973. They separate edition was published in London in 1978. In the USSR, mostly published in 1988-90. The writer himself divided his novels into six books: "the Kolyma tales", "the Left coast", "Artist lopaty", "Sketches of the criminal world", "the resurrection of the larch" and "the Glove, or CU-2".
He met B. L. Pasternak, who praised Shalamov's verses. Later, after Boris Pasternak refused to receive the Nobel prize, they parted ways. Completed collection of poems, "the Kolyma notebooks" (1937-1956).
Since 1956 Shalamov lived in Moscow, first at Gogolevsky Boulevard since the late 1950s in one of the writer's wooden houses and cottages on Khoroshevskoye highway (D. 10), since 1972 — for the land (d. 2, korpus 6). Published in magazines "Yunost", "Znamya", "Moscow", a lot of contact with N. J. Mandelstam, O. V. Ivinskaya, A. I. Solzhenitsyn (which later moved to a form of controversy); a frequent visitor was in the house a well-known expert on the French language Professor V. N. Blueway (street Arbat, 35). In prose and in verse Shalamov (book "the Tinder box", 1961, "the Rustling leaves", 1964, "the Way fate", 1967, etc.), have expressed serious experience of Stalin's camps, the sounds and the theme of Moscow (the poetry collection "Moscow clouds", 1972). In the 1960s he met A. Galich.
From 1973 until 1979, when Shalamov moved to live in the house of the disabled and the elderly, he led the workbooks, the analysis and the publication of which is still ongoing.
the Last three years of the life of a seriously ill Shalamov spent in the Home of the disabled and elderly of the literary Fund (in Tushino). The poet died on 17 Jan 1982 Buried at Kuntsevo cemetery in Moscow. The funeral was attended by about 150 people. A. Morozov and F. Suchkov read poems by Shalamov.
the Funeral of Varlam Shalamov's prot.Alexander Kulikov, now the Abbot of the temple SVT. Nicholas in Klenniki (Maroseyka).
In June 2000, a monument to Varlam Shalamov was destroyed. Unknown tore off and carried the bronze head, leaving a lone granite pedestal. This crime has caused a wide resonance not been disclosed. Thanks to the help of metallurgists of JSC "Severstal" (fellow writer) in 2001, the monument was restored.
21 July 2007 a memorial to Shalamov was opened in Krasnovishersk – the city grew on the site of the camp where he was serving his first term.
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