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Hi-Tech / Hardware

The first three-dimensional processor 23.09.2018 at 21:05

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24 Sep 2012, Hitachi was able to record the contents of the CD onto a plate of quartz glass with an area of 2 cm2 . Most important: the information on this media can be stored forever.

For recording on a glass plate using a special laser, capable in the thickness of the quartz to engrave microdots. Reading is done by an optical laser. Information can be written in layers.

the formation of dots was of ultrashort pulses (in the femtosecond, 10-15 s) and the application of spatial-phase modulator capable of changing the phase and amplitude of a laser beam. In the end, one pulse can be applied to the surface of the plate 100 from the microdots.

Demonstrated a prototype was a square plate area of 2 cm2 and a thickness of 2 mm. Info (700 MB) was recorded in four layers. Quartz glass itself is not afraid of radio waves, no chemicals or high temperatures. For example, the plate for two hours survived heating to 1000 degrees Celsius.

Scheme application information on the plate

24 Sep 2008 the public was presented the first three-dimensional processor. The development was called true3D. Tried the staff of the University of Rochester and the Massachusetts Institute of technology. The chip is operated with a clock frequency of 1.4 GHz.

the fact that at that time the majority of integrated circuits had a flat structure. It's easier to integrate the elements and also to cool them. However, three-dimensional packaging allows you to put more number of transistors, while using less space. For it is the future.

more specifically, the present. The first commercial desktop solutions with three-dimensional transistors, appeared in 2011, when Intel introduced a line of Central processors Ivy Bridge. The technology is called Tri-gate. Since that time, all Intel integrated circuits have become three-dimensional. Interestingly, the development of this technology began in the distant 2002 year, nearly ten years before its successful commercial implementation. Apparently, actual (in all planes) Tri-gate was only during the transition to 22-nm process technology.

After Intel your 3D processors boasted Samsung and HiSilicon. Their solutions are used in mobile devices. Where the requirements of compactness and energy efficiency are the most stringent. The Korean Corporation to the same vengeance is ramping up production of three-dimensional memory. Companies like AMD and NVIDIA (the developers do not have their own production facilities), rely on global partners TSMC and GlobalFoundries. They also have modern designs. The first three-dimensional solutions of the "red" and "green" were published in 2016.

the Scheme of the planar transistor

the Scheme of three-dimensional transistor

September 24, 2012, the company Samsung has presented the legendary line of solid-state drives 840 Series. In particular, models were 840 PRO and 840 EVO. Prior to that, the Korean manufacturer has entered the market from 830-th series, but in 2012, Samsung has declared itself as about the leader in this segment of the market. Moreover, the company has its own production facilities.

there is Nothing surprising here. Drive 840 PRO was very fast. It is based on the MDX controller, built on the basis of three Cortex-R4 and using an eight-channel structure, and increased to 300 MHz clock frequency. As you know, the power IC is paramount in a solid-state drive, as it allows to use some advanced features without loss of performance, e.g., the same AES encryption. The second important point is the presence of twice the amount of buffer memory component is now 512 MB. Moreover, the standard chip has become LPDDR2 (chips with low energy consumption) against the usual DDR2 adjacent to the controller of the previous generation, which ultimately reduced energy consumption.

In summary, a series of models 840 PRO boasts a linear read/write at the level 540/520 MB/s Performance with random read data size is 4 KB up to 100,000 IOPS. The entry is slightly worse, but still decent — 90 000 IOPS. Even by today's standards and the 840 PRO is showing good results for SATA drives.

Samsung SSD 840. Your PC will be new again