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October 4 1957 was launched into space on PS-1 — the Simplest Satellite-1, is the first artificial Earth satellite. He was in orbit for 92 days, flying 60 million miles and having made 1,440 orbits around our planet. This began the space age in the history of mankind.
the First artificial satellite of the Earth
the Satellite consisted of two hemispheres with a diameter of only 58 cm and His weight was 83.6 kg and approximately 50 kg of which were the batteries. In addition to them, inside was a radio transmitter, thermal control system, sensors of pressure and temperature. Originally planned to design and send into space a completely different machine — a scientific laboratory weighing 1000-1400 kg. But by 1957-1958 he make such a complex device is not possible, and to send the first satellite before the US was a matter of honor. Therefore, Korolev suggested sending a basic device.
the same day, two scientists from the University laboratory of applied physics Johns Hopkins tracked the movement of the first Soviet Satellite. They calculated its orbit by analyzing the Doppler shift of its radio signal. Scientists have suggested that if the position of the satellite would be known and predictable, using the same Doppler effect could determine the position of the radio receiver on the Ground. Later in 1964 was created the system of "Transit", which helped the U.S. Navy keep track of nuclear submarines. Since 1967, the project evolved into a system of geolocation for all Nations, the predecessor of "global positioning System" (GPS). GPS itself was put into operation only in 1993, and in its creation took ten years. Until 2000, the accuracy was deliberately reduced, so that no one except the us military could not use the GPS in militaristic purposes. But over time a specially designed algorithm that reduce the precision of navigation has been solved, and the US government willingly abandon it.
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