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26 November 1965, launched into space the first French satellite, Asterix. Thus, another space power has become greater. Originally the device was called A-1, but after reaching orbit, was renamed after the famous hero of French comics. The launch of the "Asterix" was intended primarily for testing of the carrier rocket "Diamond". The satellite with a diameter of 500 mm had a weight of 42 kg. of the Chemical battery was only enough for 15 days of operation in space.
Asterix, the first French satellite
26 Nov 2003, ended operation of the British-French airliner Concorde. He and Tu-144 are two of the only supersonic aircraft in commercial operation.
the development of the "Concorde" began in 1962. Collaboration teamed up French company Sud Aviation and the British firm of BAC. The propulsion system of the aircraft developed by Rolls-Royce and SNECMA. The first flight took place on 2 March 1969 and commercial operation began only in 1976. It is noteworthy that in 27 years, was released only 20 planes, although from the time of the announcement had registered 74 pre-order. But the advent of the Boeing 747, as they say, has confused all the cards. In the end, nine "Concorde" distributed between British Airways and Air France, and later five more copies sold the same airlines at symbolic price of one pound sterling and one, respectively. In the end, each airline had seven aircraft.
End of 50-ies of the last century is considered the peak in the development of supersonic aircraft. On their projects worked, the Soviet Union and the United States. Decided to keep up with the superpowers and in Europe. In 1956 in the UK was founded by the governmental Committee on Supersonic Transport (Supersonic Transport Advisory Committee, STAC). Already by 1962, engineers have developed an aircraft called the Bristol 233, equipped with a Delta wing and four engines. The aircraft can accommodate 110 people. The French at that time there was a similar program — the Super-Caravelle. However, the large costs of development forced these two countries to unite. In may 1969 at the Paris air show in Le Bourget was submitted to the Concord No. 001.
In October of that year, the prototype testing for the first time exceeded the speed of sound (340,29 m/s or 1234,8 km/h), hold for nine minutes of Mach number in the amount of 1.05. Model "Concord" No. 102, proven 10 January 1973, could boast of the maximum allowed speed in size M=to 2.23.
For 27 years of regular flights, "the Concorde" have transported more than three million passengers. Unfortunately, not without tragic cases. Thus, on 25 July 2000 a plane crashed while trying to depart from Paris airport "Charles de Gaulle". 113 people died. After this disaster, British Airways and Air France for half a year has suspended regular flights of "Concorde" and on November 26, 2003 fully-finished operation legendary airliner.
26 Nov 2007 completed the first phase of the project the Blue Brain Project. The purpose of the experiment, sanctioned by IBM and the Swiss Federal Technical Institute of Lausanne, was computer simulation of new cerebral cortex (neocortex). A project was launched in July 2005.
As is known, the main structure of the neocortex is a human neural column, which includes the order of 1000-10, 000 neurons. The human neocortex has six layers. This number defines the mental capacity of a living organism. For example, the dog is four layers. Using the Blue Gene supercomputer, with a capacity of 20 petaflops, the scientists were able to simulate a single neural column of a young rat. 8192 CPU faking the work of approximately 10,000 neurons.
the Simulation of a rat's brain using a supercomputer in 2007-2009
the Main objective of the project is to understand how the human brain. Scientists do not aim at simulation of consciousness. However, maybe the project Blue Brain Project has taken another step towards creating an artificial intelligence.
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