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[History] has been established As the national myth of the United States

Latest news / 08.01.2019 at 15:56

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American war of 1812 was the start of US expansion in the Western hemisphere, contributed to the rapid transformation of America into a superpower and for many years has defined its strategic thinking.

205 years ago, on 8 January 1815, in a remote Louisiana battle has taken place, which seriously affected, as we would say today, a young American statehood.

It was the battle of New Orleans, which almost immediately after its victory the United States has become part of the national myth of the United States. However, as all the war of 1812-15. in North America, about which very little is known to the mass reader in Russia and Europe.

meanwhile, it was undoubtedly an important part of global conflict known in history as the Napoleonic wars. This conflict has spread to two continents and at least for the two countries turned into a domestic war that is the struggle for existence of national statehood.

the American war of 1812 was the start of US expansion in the Western hemisphere, contributed to the rapid transformation of America into a superpower and for many years has defined its strategic thinking.

it was the first and last time in the history of the United States capital was taken by the enemy army.

At the beginning of the XIX century in the US was 16 States. In 1803, acceded to the Union, the 17th state, Ohio. Further to the West stretched the vast territory belonging to the Spanish crown. To the North it includes part of the current South-Western provinces of Canada, and from the South bordered by the Gulf of Mexico.

In 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte (then first Consul of the Republic) under the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso returned to France the land, lost her after the Seven years ' war, together with the colonies on the territory of Canada.

Napoleon initially had plans for the recovery of the French possessions in North America, which caused serious concern in Washington. For US was a vital water artery of the Mississippi river and the port of New orlena, opening out in the Atlantic in the South.

President Thomas Jefferson sent James Monroe (the future Secretary of war and the President) to Paris to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans and a small area adjacent to it. Monroe received an unexpected offer to purchase the entire Louisiana territory for $ 15 million (in terms of current US GDP is about 600 billion dollars).

the area (compared to the average size of the modern state of Louisiana) was huge. Today it is fully or partially located thirteen States.

the Deal allowed the United States to redouble its territory. The way West was opened.

France, in turn, receives the necessary funds for the war in Europe. The explosive expansion of the former colony called disturbing London. In Westminster knew that on the distant continent raises its head, the future great power, which eventually challenged British sovereignty in the oceans.

Being involved in the European campaign, Britain was led against the United States a kind of hybrid war. Under various pretexts, London insisted on the creation of a buffer Indian state (at least in the territory occupied today by the States of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri), which in fact would become a puppet of the UK.

the Empire was constantly inspired by various tribes of native Americans for attacks on Western outposts of American colonists. In addition, U.S. trade with France and some other European powers had become almost impossible because of the actions of the Royal Navy.

we have Already mentioned, James Monroe, and other distinguished American diplomat John Quincy Adams (1809 - U.S. Ambassador to Russia) knew that the impending war and tried to prevent it, but the intransigence of London and the frequent cases of seizure of American ships led both politicians to the "party of war".

Monroe had already begun to formulate his famous doctrine of the "one host" in the Western hemisphere. In 1811-12. it still boiled down to the assertion that U.S. national security will not be secured until, as the country would stretch from ocean to ocean.

President James Madison, who took the post in 1809, at first, also prefer diplomacy to military action, but was soon forced to ask Congress for increase in military spending.

In may 1812, Napoleon arrived on the banks of the Niemen to his "great Army" on the border with Russia. This became known in St. Petersburg, and John Quincy Adams sent Washington urgent message of the imminent start of the new European campaign.

Since one of the aims of Napoleon's invasion of Russia was announced the establishment of the continental blockade of Britain, the United States decided that the Imperial army and Navy will be totally absorbed in European Affairs.

on 18 June 1812, two days before the beginning of our Patriotic war, the U.S. President signed the Declaration of war, the British Empire, and American advanced troops invaded Canada.

at First, the war that the people immediately dubbed "the war of Mr. Madison," was extremely unpopular in the United States. But with the development of hostilities, the attitude began to change.

the Invasion of Canada from the first days didn't go according to plan. And although battles were fought with varying success, the American army is gradually pushed back to the border. At the same time on average the North-West of the British troops, canadian militia and the Indians have caused US armed forces a number of painful defeats.

the Third theatre of war was the Atlantic and coastal areas. The British Navy began to tighten the noose a naval blockade around the major ports of the United States. However, the Americans quickly learned from their mistakes, and the attitude of the armed forces became more decisive.

the War was becoming protracted. And then the Emperor Alexander I made an attempt to reconcile the warring parties. In July 1813 in Saint-Petersburg arrived the high-ranking delegation from the United States. The results of the consultations in the Russian capital in London was invited to take part in the peace talks. But the British Empire rejected the proposal.

Napoleon suffered one defeat after another, and the British authorities could send overseas more troops, arms and ammunition.

the turning point came in 1814. March 31 the garrison of Paris surrendered to the Sixth antimonarchism coalition. Riding squads, headed by the Emperor Alexander entered the French capital.

the Victory of Russian arms meant for the United States coming hard times.

the Kingdom was transferred to the American front, all new reinforcements. In the South of Canada was formed a pretty strong strike force, which was preparing to strike deep into the defense. In addition, the British command planned a landing in Virginia and New Orleans.

Between historians still debate whether hatched London's plans for complete destruction of the United States or in his plan was only to take the war to their territory and tend to best of Britain to the world. But even if it is the latter assumption, the United States would lose all of most of the territory recently purchased from France, and would have remained a small country in North America.

the Offensive began in July 1814. By August the British troops approached the Potomac. At the town Bladensburg 14 km from Washington on August 24 the battle which ended in the complete defeat of the American regular army and militia.

without encountering further resistance, units of the Imperial army entered Washington. The white house, the Capitol and other government buildings were burned.

the Administration and Congress were forced to flee to Maryland and hastily to gather new strength. Subsequently, the defeat at Bladensburg and the burning of Washington is called "the greatest disgrace ever experienced by the American army."

the Imperial troops turned into Baltimore. We are also preparing the landing in New Orleans, which if successful would have forced the U.S. army to wage war on two fronts.

In August, Flanders in Ghent, negotiations began between the British and American delegations. Representatives of London initially behaved like the undisputed victors in the war. They made demands that could not be met by Americans - including about the creation of a buffer Indian state, declaring New Orleans a neutral city and the full control of the Empire over the Great Lakes.

the British did not consider that the nature of warfare has changed. The American army gained combat experience. Military U.S. industry ran at full capacity. The population is increasingly perceived a war of national liberation.

Few people remembered that the United States began fighting first. The conflict is now often called the second war for independence.

In Ghent London, the delegation learned that the siege of Baltimore failed, and the front in the Midwest stabilized near the canadian border. Started British disembarkation near New Orleans, but the intelligence they brought on well-prepared American defence.

the peace Treaty was signed 24 December 1814. According to him, the sides exchanged prisoners of war and refused territorial claims to each other.

But the news of the world managed to get to armies, poised for battle at New Orleans. The battle began on January 8. It ended with a convincing victory of the US army. Americans, skillfully combining defensive and offensive, drove the enemy from the town and inflicted heavy losses.

the Americans celebrated the victory, although from a military point of view, it was at best a draw. But in the myth of the great victory of the USA in the war of 1812-15. there is a truth.

#{author}American expansion to the West and South more is not obstructed. After two years in the US had 20 States, and by the middle of the XIX century - 30. The country from the West and the East, washed by two oceans and the North and South were surrounded by neighbors, not with her eager to make war.

the Doctrine of James Monroe (made in collaboration with John Quincy Adams) lasted until the 1940's, when she was replaced by liberal interventionism. But that's another story...