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What's the secret of making mirrors?

Shkolazhizni.ru :.: Article 12.02.2019 at 21:00

Shkolazhizni.ru :.: Article

According to Wikipedia, mirror — smooth surface designed to reflect light. People like to look in the mirror and blame the mirror, if... you can see something that I would like. In ancient times people looked at the smooth surface of the water. Narcissus looking at his reflection in the water, so in love with him, which was turned by the gods into a flower. What were mirrors in ancient times and what they have become in our time? In the early history of mirrors — in the days of the Bronze age people did the primitive mirror. The oldest of the currently known mirrors were made from volcanic glass obsidian, found it during an archaeological excavation in Turkey, the age of this mirror is estimated at 7,500 years. Mirror from obsidianovom: the Source of the Rich ladies of Ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome looked in the mirror, which then was made of rock crystal, obsidian, bronze, silver... to Have a mirror then it was very expensive. And to get a good reflection, before to look in the mirror, it had to dip into the water. So did even the Cleopatra. These mirrors distort the image, besides over time they faded and in need of complex maintenance, the surface is often needed polishing, the colors in them are distorted, but the other mirrors did not yet exist. At the beginning of a New Era in Ancient Rome learned to make mirrors of glass. The glass plate was connected with tin or lead substrate and the reflection was so much better than gold or silver mirrors. However, the art of the ancient masters were forgotten immediately after the death of Rome. The Church considered mirrors of the devil and told unichtozhat: pixabay.com At the beginning of the Christian era the Church came crashing down on the mirror, calling them devil's spawn and the mirror disappeared from use more than half Millennium. Centuries passed, developed the technique. In the XIII century in Europe there were glassmakers. In a glass flask filled with molten tin and then the vessel broke up and got little pieces of mirror. The mirror was crooked and severely distorted reflection. The Church continued to fight the demonic. For many years, people treated with improvised means, looked in the reflective poverhnostei-Henri de Valenciennes, "Narcissus admiring his reflection" photo: artflakes.com In the XVI century in Venice, on Murano island, in secrecy began to develop the production of mirrors and glass products. In 1516 the master glassmakers from the Murano island, the brothers Andrea and Domenico, made mirror using mercury amalgam — from a crystal glass. The Venetian monopoly on the production of mirrors held up to the seventeenth century, when Colbert, Minister of French king Louis XIV, bypassing all security measures taken in Venice, managed to lure three of the masters who founded in Paris the first mirror manufactory outside of the Venetian Republic. Silver amalgam (13% mercury)Photo: ru.wikipedia.org the Secret of Venetian masters was in special formula is crystal glass and the use of mercury amalgam. Already in the French mirror manufactory technology has changed — the crystal glass is not blown, and poured on a flat surface and then rolling out rollers. Until the mid XIX century mirrors coated with amalgam with the silver. And because mercury is a very toxic substance. But then in France, discovered a method of chemical silvering of mirrors. Then, to obtain the smoothest possible glass for manufacturing mirrors molten glass began to pour over an absolutely smooth surface on the molten tin or lead. Their melting temperature is sufficiently low that the glass sheet on them almost completely smooth surface hardened perfectly smooth. Nowadays for the production of mirrors using a continuous furnace. Of them continuously follows the finished glass, which solidifies on a molten bath. Then continuously moving strip of glass is subjected to fire polishing — passing through the molten metal bath. Then enter into the work of grinding and polishing units. Stream silver glass, and then cut a diamond or roller glass cutters. That's how far the technology of production mirrors from blowing big glass of bubbles to high-tech conveyor, one end of which is loaded in the oven the sand and need a charge, and at the other end of the pipeline are ready mirror....

This article describe tags: history of mirrors, mirrors manufacturing technology