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2 Feb 1886, was born a giant man who in his life: he explored the Arctic, married an eskimo girl and lost a leg; fought against the Nazis and published the magazine for Housewives, was filming a movie and several times managed to cheat death itself.
You may have encountered this impressive photo before: a huge, bearded man in a plush bear fur coat and a delicate, petite girl next. It's not photoshop, but a real six-foot Danish polar Explorer, Explorer, anthropologist, zoologist, writer, publisher, actor, Director, anti-fascist and a wild man Peter Freuchen — with his third wife, Dagmar Cohn. He rightfully deserves the title of one of the greatest adventurers of the twentieth century, and his adventures would be enough for a dozen well-known explorers and pioneers.
Lorenz Peter Elfred, Freuchen was born on 2 February 1886 in the small Danish town of nykøbing. His father, honest businessman, raising him to the rigor and discipline, hoping to raise a worthy successor of his case. He has to pay for his son at the University of Copenhagen, where Peter chose a medical specialty. The father did not dissuade him, in the end, the doctor — the same honorable and profitable profession.
But it soon became clear that a boring lecture on anatomy and stuffy audience burdened young adventurer. Not help even practical sessions in the morgue — Peter wanted more thrills and glory of the discoverer. At that time Scandinavia (like the rest of the progressive world) was sick with Arctic and deeds of the pioneers. The names of Nansen, Sverdrup, Borchgrevink, Amundsen and the other characters did not descend from the front pages of Newspapers and at some point, Fragen realized that certainly wants to see among them his own.
without completing two courses of medical faculty, Peter traded the University walls in the vast expanses of the Arctic. In 1906 the 20–year-old Freshen persuades his older comrade, who had experience of polar journeys of Knud Rasmussen, to take him to his next Greenland expedition.
In 1906, when they reached the island on a whaling ship and having done it more than 600 miles on a dog sled, Freuchen and Rasmussen reached a settlement of Eskimos in Melville Bay on the West coast of Greenland. Here they spent two exciting years studying the culture and life of aboriginal people hunting with them on seals and walruses, while touring the area and learning about the construction of the needle.
two-year break, the Danish bearded ended with a stock of provisions. Rasmussen went home and Freshen took it as a great opportunity to try out the techniques of survival, all borrowed from the Eskimos. For several months he lived in solitude on a desolate coast of Greenland, bravely fighting the cold and the local wolves that ate his seven dogs. It was then, Fragen got the polar bear in a fur coat which he poses on the cover photo.
the life of the Inuit was extremely difficult. They permanently suffered from cold and hunger and were almost not familiar with the achievements of modern civilization, like metal knives, kerosene lamps and firearms. The whalers supplied the locals with necessities, not every year has managed to break through the ice and reach the North end of the island to trade with the Greenlanders. Then Rasmussen and Freuchen invented to found his own factory and trading base that would help the Eskimos to exchange trophies for things they need.
In 1910, Knud Rasmussen came back from Denmark with a cargo of supplies, and with Peter based on the shores of Melville Bay near Cape York the most Northern trading settlement of Europeans. They called it "Tule" (referring to the Latin phrase "Ultima Thule" — "vanishing point", "edge"). The factory was bought from the natives of the Arctic Fox pelts, whalebone and other products of the fisheries, and in return supplied the Eskimos with food, fuel and weapons. The exchange was mutually beneficial and has brought the Danes a lot of money. Dad Peter could be happy with his son has become a respectable entrepreneur. Of course, if not to take into account that the entrepreneur fills his books by the light of a wick lamp fueled with blubber and goes to the toilet outside in the 40 degree cold.
More than a decade, Freuchen and Rasmussen led the trading post: in 1920 it was annexed to Denmark and the king sent a representative of the official authorities. By the time "Tula" has become quite noisy by Arctic standards, the settlement and Central database of all subsequent expeditions to study the Arctic to 1933.
the First expedition of 1912, consisting of Rasmussen, Reihana and two Inuit of Audarika and Yukitaka was to test the hypothesis, the American Robert Peary on the existence of a Strait in the North of Greenland. 4 months way dog sledding brave researchers have covered about 1000 miles, crossed the ice shield and left on the North–Eastern coast of the island, proving that there is no "Strait Piri" does not exist. In addition, they have assembled an impressive collection of geological specimens, mapped the area and couple of times I almost froze to death. Since then, Fragen several times participated in the Greenland expedition, acting as a cartographer, photographer and Drover dogs.
Fragen held in Greenland for five years and really stuck to this harsh land, and not a lesser people. In 1911 he marries a local inwido Makapasok. Soon Macualy, who took the name of Navarana, Peter gave birth to a beautiful son and daughter. Children called Memasak Avatar Himexperimentally and Pipaluk, Etta Tukuringra Kasalak palika Hager, respectively. The young couple had a small romantic trip to the homeland of her husband in Copenhagen, but eskimo wife did not like city life and the warm climate and the couple quickly returned to Greenland.
After ten years of a happy marriage among the icy hummocks and vast Greenland tundra of Navarana died from "Spanish flu" — a flu epidemic that raged in Europe in the early 1920–ies. Fragen, wrapped her body in a shroud and carried to Upernavik, the nearest large village, which had its own Church. But the priest refused to perform the rite of burial, as Mekupelet never agreed to be baptized before his death. Then Peter took the shovel, took the body to the cemetery and bury his wife himself. This sad story for the rest of my life made Freehena stringent critic of the Church, which everywhere sends their preachers, but does not attempt to delve into the specifics of the life and culture of local tribes.
the Depressed Peter was rescued by an old friend of Rasmussen. "The best way to forget sorrow is to go a long journey," goes the old eskimo wisdom, and Knud invites Peter to take part in the fifth expedition, which was to go around the whole of the Arctic from Greenland through Canada and the Bering Strait back home. It was the most ambitious journey ever taken by the Danes. It brought Maheno real fame.
After three years of exhausting expeditions, during which the team has gathered local folklore, conducted ethnographic research, he mapped the terrain, and even performed an archaeological dig, the team had faster and more direct way home.
During one of the transitions, the travellers caught a terrible snow storm. Freshen on his dog sled strayed from the main group. When it became clear that he had lost, an experienced polar Explorer decided to wait out the storm and take refuge under his sledge, so that when the weather clears up, look at the compass and catch up with friends. He curled up under the sledges, and soon fell asleep, lulled by the cradle of blizzards. The storm lasted for many hours. In the end, on the seat of the sleigh, under which I was hiding Fragen, formed a huge snow Bank that threatened to become his tomb.
as soon as a good sleep Peter tore his beard frozen to the floor, he realized that he was locked in a cramped snow cave, the walls of which the breath was covered with a thick layer of ice. It quickly became clear that to penetrate the icy shell itself does not work. Tough knife, like all other tools remained in the Luggage on a sled to get to them was impossible. In complete darkness and loneliness, Freuchen was thinking how to get out of the trap and tried to breathe quieter so as not to waste oxygen.
There is something in our narrative and breaks the chisel! Maheno came up with the idea to sculpt it from foods own life and you dig up their way to freedom.
"I have not eaten for a few hours, but my digestion, surprisingly, was in order. It made me the only saving thought! I have often noticed that dog shit freezes, it becomes almost as hard as stone is much stronger ice.
Is cold will not have the same effect on human discharge? Disgusting thought, but as an experiment it was worth a try. I emptied his bowels and feces is still warm I was able to fashion a tool similar to a chisel, which left only good to freeze... I was patient. I didn't want to risk to break it using too early...".
Omit the chilling, technical details and simply state — it is really managed! A few hours later the Dane got out and found myself alone among the snow of the desert. The path to the temporary database of the expedition, where slept the rest of the explorers, took him a few hours. Once he was safe and barely took off her clothes, warm boots and wool socks, Fragen realized that he will have to say goodbye to a few toes — they were frostbitten. The nearest doctor with a suitcase of medical instruments was many miles away, so Maheno had to recall two of their medical Department and to take over the job himself.
Wrote experov on experov.d3.ru / comment
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