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Poverty in Russia has its own national characteristics. In particular, Russians are characterized by a high level of tenure. Why the poor do not enjoy what you have?
According to official statistics, in Russia 18.9 million people, or 12,89% of the population live below the poverty line. Rosstat classifies as poor those whose incomes are below the subsistence level. But if you focus on other indicators, such as consumption of goods and services, the poverty level is higher. So, according to the Institute of social analysis and forecasting (INSAP), the number of poor in Russia is approximately 36 million people, or about 25% of the population.
the Head of audit chamber of the Russian Federation Alexey Kudrin has declared that does not exclude "a social explosion" if the level of poverty will continue to grow. According to him, "poverty in Russia was a disgrace," because in a country with a level of GDP per capita, with such ever-growing salaries should not be so many poor, especially in families.
On the "lazy poor" say a word
Officials say that in Russia there is the problem of the "lazy poor", i.e. those who could live better, such as using existing property. According to some of them, you need to stop paying benefits to those who want them.
In Russia a large number of homeowners. In the Unified state register of rights to real estate (egrn) was nearly 80.8 million of the rights of ownership of the dwelling. More than 97% — 78,8 million of the rights of ownership belongs to individuals. Since the beginning of conducting in Russia of the egrn in 1997, the total number of registered rights of ownership of housing as a result of privatization amounted to 36 million Many Russians have and land. Thus, according to the Union of gardeners of Russia, there are about 16 million suburban areas.
Poverty in Russia, indeed, has its own peculiarities, says chief economist of "Expert RA" Anton tabah. "We have very specific poverty. For example, American poverty when a person has no property (if it was, he was forced to sell it) and lives on welfare. In third world countries the man gets nothing and is forced to exist. In Russia the person can live on welfare, but to have a privatized apartment. We have a high level of property ownership among the poor," he notes.
"to Say that in Russia a large number of "lazy poor" simply a disgrace, — said NES Professor Irina Denisova. — Throughout the history of modern Russia the main category of poor in the country are working people. The key problem is that in the labor market a lot of low salaries, which are on the border of the subsistence level, a significant portion of these wages in the public sector". According to her, that is why the standard advice for combating poverty in Russia is not applicable. "The standard recommendations are for developed countries be reduced to that necessary to engage the poor into the labour market, we have the same people are busy, they work and not sit on the Dole," says Denisov.
current Russian poverty is not a lack of shelter, says Professor of the Department of labour and social policy, Institute of public service and administration at Ranepa Love Khrapylina. "The essence of modern poverty is not that people without a roof over their head and a piece of bread. It is not the poor man from the play Gorky's "the lower depths". The problem of modern poverty is that people cannot afford to buy yourself, children, friends services which create a norm of life. This medicine, and education services, that is us free — is a myth. In huge amounts, poured the care of the elderly. So people who can't afford all these services, and are poor," she says. "The fight against poverty must begin with a study of the causes that in each case we must look for its cause and its solution. Someone is capable of in the best of their ability with the state to get out of poverty, and someone with such help cannot handle power, such as family circumstances," — says the Professor.
in addition, Russia continues to be the current practice of payment of salaries in envelopes that does not correctly assess the level of poverty. "That it is necessary to introduce adjustments to determine poor people who need help from the state, there is a sensible grain. Obviously, if a citizen has things that need to be further service, he has the money for it. Otherwise, he would sell things that require diversion of resources. This is the situation in Russia, because a significant number of people get minimal white wages and the basic part — in the envelope so many citizens under the law may consider that they are unsecured, but actually are not," says a leading analyst "Business Insider" Anar Ismailov.
is Not an asset but a means of survival
Experts claim that, even assuming that poor people have apartments and plots of land, this is not the tool with which you can benefit.
"what kind Of plots can there be? It is not hectares of land. And gardens people used to to do some farming, and this is again a question for salaries that aren't meant to survive. People are not planting because they like to do, but because otherwise they will not survive," says Irina Denisova.
According to the chief analyst at the Center for intelligence and financial technologies Anton Bykov, the arguments about the "lazy poor" does not correspond to the idea of social justice. "According to the logic of officials, living alone in a two - or three-room apartment and having low incomes, are not effectively dispose of his property and part of living area could be leased. This also can be attributed to citizens with land or plots of land, but on which to grow enough vegetables and fruits, such as selling, either it is done, but the income from this again is not declared. But the information about that so you can get out of poverty, does not correspond to reality," he says.
There are several reasons why people are hesitant to use their property to profit from it, says Anton tabah. "There are several reasons. Many have got flat as a result of privatization and not perceive it as a financial asset. Although stories about grandmothers who live alone in three bedroom apartments in the center, already a myth, and not a mass phenomenon. Grandmothers rent rooms for rent. The second is the high risk of transactions with real estate, even if just to reduce the size of the apartment. How many stories about black realtors. And, third, what to do if to turn assets into money? Where to invest? Therefore, for most easier to keep the property than to do something," said Tabah.
Anna PONOMAREVA, Banki.ru
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