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Business / Finance

How to save in the stock market

Banki.ru: themes of the day 20.06.2019 at 21:03

Banking and financial news on the website Banki.ru

Trade on the exchange deters many of those that have to bear the costs, in contrast to contribution, where all seems free. Tell, to save and where to earn.

Lower panel

the Basic item of expenses of any investor – Commission broker. As a rule, brokers there are several tariff plans that may or may not work for you depending on the amount and how often you intend to make transactions with securities. The General principle is the same for everyone – you pay based on the amount of the transaction. However, some companies set a minimum fee. Therefore, if you do not plan to invest large sums, it is necessary to clarify how much you pay for each transaction. The more the amount of the transaction, the smaller the impact on investment returns provided by the Commission of the broker.

the Second part of the cost of Depositary services, which takes into account and stores information about the securities. In particular it is necessary in order to receive dividends. Unlike a brokerage Commission, payment for services of the Depositary are often fixed and may not be waived if in a calendar month there is no transaction. So if you made a few trades during the month, the Commission the broker will grow, and the Depository will remain the same. You can save if in some months just not to make transactions on the exchange.

Investment strategist "BCS Premier" Svetlana Cordo: "If the strategy involves a one-time creation of portfolio and lack of regular trading, should learn about various shares from brokers. Often the first month or two after you open an account new customer, the broker reduces the Commission".

If we are talking about exchange-traded funds, or ETFs, here is a General rule the purchase of securities. The only risk high spreads (the difference between the sale price and the purchase) that may occur if the paper is not very liquid. It should also be remembered, if you buy shares in the second or third echelon or the bonds of corporate issuers. If they have low liquidity, there is a risk to not sell at the most favorable price or at all for some time to get stuck in position.

Save on taxes

By law, the investor is obliged to pay 13% from the profits, whether dividends received from the ownership of shares, or, in some cases, coupons on the bonds. The obligation to pay tax occurs when you sell stocks or bonds at a profit. But if they are traded in a foreign currency, you will pay for the value of their currency revaluation. Behind all this is required to monitor the broker or the management company in which you have an account.

to minimize costs, it is worth remembering three things. First, the cases when the investor does not have to pay income tax. The list includes:

coupon yield on all government bonds, the coupon yield on corporate bonds placed after 2016; the shares of high-tech sector (assuming that the investor bought them no earlier than 2015 and owned less than a year) Eurobonds of the Ministry of Finance (the tax is not paid on the profit obtained from their "currency revaluation"). Grocery widget

second, do not pay personal income tax, if the investor owned the exchange traded securities (including mutual Funds) for over three years. True, there are limitations – the paper must be purchased on or after January 1, 2014, and the size of the deduction on earned income is limited to the amount of 3 million rubles multiplied by the number of years of ownership. Another option is to take advantage of benefits that the state provides to the owners of IMS. They have the right not to pay personal income tax on income three years after account opening. Another type of benefits for IMS, which can be used every year, with the deduction of the contribution. More information can be found here.

And thirdly (this is often overlooked by inexperienced investors), is the transfer of losses from operations with securities. By law they can be taken into account in the future to reduce the amount of (the tax base), which the government will take taxes. Of course, have to take the broker the documents confirming the company's loss from operations, and submit them to the tax. To transfer net loss in ten years, the rule only works for one type of investment, for example, the loss incurred as a result of operations with foreign currency, fail to take into account for the payment of tax on profits from trading shares or bonds. To reduce taxable base, if the end of the year to sell the loss securities and then buy them back. Then the broker will record the fact of loss, and this is the reason to reduce the tax.

get rid of useless services

in Addition to access to the trading platform the broker provides investors with many services, which often make their lives more convenient, but also cost money. For example, use of trading terminal many companies often include in the package, but there are tariffs, where it will have to pay. If you do not plan to trade using technical analysis tools and we are talking about the simple purchase of bonds or dividend shares, you may want to try to use the mobile app. Despite the narrow functionality (for example, you cannot see the actual number of applications), to carry out most operations, that is quite enough. Moreover, brokers are gradually expanding the possible applications — and it's free.

the Analyst of "Finam" Sergey Drozdov: "One of the most popular ways for investors to reduce costs is to use the mobile app to trade where and absent of the Commission of the broker for execution of standard transactions. Everything else, by the absolute usability of the application include their compact size, portability and ability to respond quickly to changing market conditions in those or other exchange-traded instruments".

Costs the investor St often asany margin national trading (using leverage) and information and analytical support (support, trade ideas, etc.). If you do not obtain from a broker's recommendations and do not use borrowed funds, the costs to investors will be significantly lower. "You should pay attention to the method of delivery of trade orders. For the supply of voice instructions may take additional Commission," recalls Svetlana Cordo from "BCS".

another story — learning. You can, of course, to connect avtosvedenie (copy the trades of a professional trader) or to enroll in training courses offered by many brokers or private companies. However, all this will have to pay. Alternatively, you can use free webinars school of the Moscow exchange or to access learning materials, Higher school of Economics.

albert KOSHKAROV, Banki.ru