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The Theory of "save face" in negotiations (Face Negotiation Theory) was first proposed in 1985 Stella ting-Toomey, Professor of Sciences in the field of human communication. According to this theory, people tend to resolve conflicts so that to save their public image. This behavior is explained by the desire of individuals to consolidate its position in the group. This conclusion ting-Toomey came when doing the research for her doctoral thesis at the University of Washington.
It was found that most of the earlier studies either have been biased and showed only the point of view of the representatives of Western culture, called "my face", while the point of view of representatives of the Eastern and collectivist cultures was called "false face". Because of his disagreement with many provisions popular theories of interpersonal communication, Stella ting-Toomey decided to develop its own, which was called "Theory "save face" in negotiations".
the Basic ideas of the theory of "save face" in negotiations
All people have two sides of the "I": one side only known to the person, the other side presented to the public and represents what others define as your identity, in other words – is your "face". There are two types of people – collectivists and individualists. Collectivists tend to resolve conflicts by making concessions and showing courtesy. Individualists, in turn, to resolve conflicts, competing with others and generally behaving more aggressively. In collectivist culture, people are much less likely to show traits of individualism. The same collective behavior is more common in people who are worried about their image in society.
It is the cultural features that determine how a person will be more beneficial in a given situation. Personality, which is formed throughout a person's life, creates certain behaviors. Styles of behavior in conflict situations on the theory of the Thomas-kilman of, as well as the styles of conflict resolution are those sets of behaviors that are acquired in the socialization process. People can have such behaviours as dominance, grooming, concessions, compromise, and cooperation:
Care – collectivist approach, "avoid conflict" Compromise individualistic approach "to negotiate and come to an agreement" Dominance – individualistic approach, "never cave in" Cooperation – a characteristic pattern of behavior for the collectivist (to a lesser extent) and individualistic (mostly) approach, "work together" Concessions – the collectivist approach of "do what others say"
In addition to these five main patterns of behavior, ting-Toomey also identified three additional:
Emotional display – to talk about their needs and desires, to resolve the conflict Through a third party – engage a third party to exit from a conflict situation, the Passive aggression is to blame other people directly and indirectly
When a "person", that is, the positive image is lost because of the conflict, it needs to be restored by resorting to the strategy of "control person". This strategy is used in order to maintain its status and return it to its original position. Like any injury, the image can also be "repaired". To the management of "face" in collectivist cultures resorted to when they want to reduce the threat to reputation (i.e. "person") of another member of the group.
the Locus of "persons" is called the degree of care of "their" and "foreign" way. Intercultural conflict requires active management of the "face" of both parties involved in the conflict. Management models the "face" connected with:
a high level of concern for own and others ' "face": the desire to protect both their reputation and the reputation of the other person's low level of concern for own and others ' "face": the neglect of both its reputation and reputation of other high level concerns their reputation and a low level of concern for the "face" of other parties: protecting your reputation neglecting their "face" for the sake of the reputations of other parties to the conflict: protecting another's reputation. Features of the theory of "save face" in negotiations, This theory is designed to clarify the problem of intercultural communication. This theory tries to explain the dynamics of cross-cultural communication. Under this theory, cultures are divided into individualistic and collectivist. Different cultures behave differently in situations of conflict and resort to the typical for their culture methods for conflict resolution. People's behavior in a conflict situation, considered in their culture the norm, may not be appropriate in conflict situations with the participation of representatives of other cultures. The parties to the conflict are always striving to save his "face", despite the fact, representatives of what culture they are. This theory attempts to understand the nature of conflict. "Face" can be perceived both positively and negatively. Conflict is always a process of negotiation. An important role in the conflict also play and the individual characteristics of the person. The theory of "save face" in negotiations, for example,
Westerners tend to be individualistic behavior. They respond to conflict situations differently than people in Eastern countries. In a situation of conflict, individualists become more aggressive and focused on progress. In cases of dispute, they try to defend themselves and to occupy a dominant position. For collectivists, in turn, tend to show their helpfulness and courtesy, after all, the desire to avoid conflict in any way their inherent cultural characteristics. Collectivists tend to try to compromise or to obey the conditions of the other parties to the conflict.
Individualists tend to be independent is very important for them their rights and freedoms. Often they are even willing to sacrifice other people's reputation to save his. Collectivist culture teaches people to put the needs of the group above their own. Therefore, in order to settle the conflict, their communication tone, gestures, words and even their position may change during the communication process.
In different cultures, even little things like eye contact can be interpreted in different ways. In some Western countries, a direct gaze is perceived as a manifestation of attention and respect. And in some Asian countries, by contrast, direct eye contact is considered unacceptable rudeness.
For example, when the Korean multinational company opens a branch in America, of American employees are required to follow the collectivist culture, because their boss appreciates the behavior characteristic of collectivism. They must learn to take care of their reputation, and the reputation of other people. According to the Stella ting-Toomey, representatives of collectivist cultures are trying to save the "face" of other people. For example, when a student is late to class, his classmates ask for his forgiveness in front of the teacher. And though it doesn't do them any good, they still trying to save others, or, as we call it, to save "face" of another person.
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