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Honestly, this article was planned to devote the most by Michelangelo Buonarroti — not as a painter and sculptor but as a man the complex and tragic fate. Suddenly, next to his colossal figure found other masters, whose lives are inextricably intertwined with the fate of Michelangelo. And that, alas, was "closed" their great contemporary, and not very known, famous and sometimes not with the best hand. Hardly someone will surprise that the circle of the great masters have included other painters, sculptors and architects. Lower rank when compared with Michelangelo, next to which all "lower"... Two of which will be discussed — not just met Michelangelo. What unites them is that reputation is both as a result was pretty spoiled. Michelangelo in a portrait by Daniele da Volterra, approx. 1544 Photo: ru.wikipedia.org the First of them was Pietro Torrigiani, a co-student of Michelangelo in the Florentine school of painters known primarily by the fact that once fighting broke Michelangelo's nose, so the scars remained for life. How suffered from this Michelangelo himself, we don't know. But life Torrigiani from this point made a sharp turn when, fleeing from the wrath of the "sponsor" of the school, the de facto ruler of Florence, Lorenzo de ' Medici, Torrigiani hastily fled from the city. (Just in case remember that Florence XIV—XVI centuries, cov — "cradle of Renaissance" and which gave the world a new vision of art and many artists.) This story is told at least two younger contemporary: art historian and biographer of Michelangelo Giorgio Vasari and the sculptor Benvenuto Cellini. According to Vasari (obviously, from the words of Michelangelo or of his friends), Torrigiani struck friend out of jealousy for his talent. At Cellini, who heard the story from Torrigiani, the initiator of the quarrel is Michelangelo himself, nesmejalsja over the works of his comrades. A statue of Jesus the work of Pietro Torrigiani, approx. 1500 Photo: ru.wikipedia.org However, given the nasty character of Michelangelo, Cellini information may be closer to reality... Masters in what was then Florence is really a lot. How many of them we remember? And Torrigiani could be one of the "widely known in narrow circles". Fate decreed otherwise, though hardly, from the usual youthful fight, Torrigiani had intended to go down in history such an extraordinary way. His personal story is just getting started. The court of the early 1490's, Torrigiani about 20 years and he is ready to work independently. The first thing he is going to work. Going to work in modern Russian? To the capital. In Italy, this was Rome — the capital of the country, but of the Catholic world. Who actively built up of successive Popes. St. Jerome's work, Pietro Torregrotta: ru.wikipedia.org And Torrigiani begins career with a part in the decoration of the so-called Borgia towers. About this period of his life little is known. Interesting one of the young masters, but rather apprentices? There are a dime a dozen! But apparently, the beginning was successful if the sculptor works for the Borgia and beyond. Quite possibly, the "brigade of dressers"... Shops, workshops, schools, where pupils rise to the apprentices, and to master the realities of the time. The artists are no exception. Master developing a project that personally makes basic and manages the progress of work. Secondary work performed by assistants. A vivid example — the workshop of Andrea Orocio, where at one time worked as Perugino, Botticelli, da Vinci... or No assistants except that the works of Michelangelo — well, he's a genius, he can... And Torrigiani soon again changes the way of life, engaging in military service. According to the same Vasari, successfully proved himself in several wars. Searches do it yourself, or hunt for earnings? Or Torrigiani simply did not Shine for their special artistic talents and his services ceased to be in demand? Look! Good soldier, the military career, he also did not. And a few years later... back to studying sculpture, performing a series of orders to the Florentine merchants. Bust of Henry VII, 1509 g, the work of Pietro Torregrotta: the power of the Medici did not rule Florence, while Lorenzo for more than ten years dead, and the sculptor returned home. Where, according to Vasari, left many of his works. Turns out not so bad was Torrigiani, sculptor, and if this is the "city of masters" orders for him were? However, and there he stuck around for a while: about 1509 Torrigiani come to work in Flanders (working for the ruler of the Netherlands, Margaret of Austria), and then with all the same Florentine merchants in England. Where suddenly have to the court. Literally: to the Royal court. Another twist of fate! And this time, successful. It seems that neither in Flanders, nor even in England there is no sculptors comparable level. Perhaps there is simply no "schools" and traditions. So that the average Florentine master meets competitors. Maybe not so average? Openly Lorenzo de Medici school of sculpture, all in a row did not take... Alas, Torrigiani not only had to drastically change the fate after the fight with Michelangelo. Or worse: not lucky enough to live at the same time and in the same city as the Greatest master. There any seems middling... outside Italy, everything is different. Besides, 40-year-old Torrigiani — it was the current master, the carrier of a powerful tradition. In England it works for about 10 years and, according to Vasari, "were it not for the proud man unruly and careless, he has easily lived up to the best end." Male portrait by Pietro Torregrotta: the Source is Known, which is briefly Torrigiani in Florence, where he met Benvenuto Cellini, who offers to go to England. The proposal, which Cellini, an ardent admirer of Michelangelo, rejects. And irrepressible passionary Torrigiani soon finds himself in Spain. It seems, and here the Italian master had not yet arrived, and before the Florentine sculptor, a new "field of activity". And again success, and here "many of his works, which are highly appreciated, are scattered in different places." Unfortunately, here Torrigiani faced with deception. Nedopoluchit fee for one of the orders the sculptor of the spoils has already been done to the statue. Alas, the statue of the virgin Mary, which gave rise to accusations of heresy... and the death penalty. Which couldn't be put in execution, because refused food sculptor simply starve myself. The mourning of Bogomateri: Source With all the tragedy and here Torrigiani went on his own way! Itself to its fate, unpredictable and vivid, is consistent with the era. And about the talent of this difficult person we can still be judged according to his works... the fate of the second wizard was much less rapidly and more successfully. He was lucky and recognition to Rome, and become a disciple, a protege and successor of Michelangelo. So the work of this talented artists still adorn Rome. And largely thanks to him, we know, looked like Michelangelo's. It would seem that life is good! Life — Yes. But the memory... Daniele Da Walternate: ru.wikipedia.org the name of the master Daniele da Volterra, but in the history of painting he went under a different name and for a very special reason. This man undertook to change the last fresco Michelangelo — the last judgement that adorns the altar wall of the Sistine chapel. No, his teacher had to complete the work. And another quarter of a century worked in Rome. And even, it seems, caught the start of work on the "dopii"... "correction"... in General, a partial alteration of its frescoes. Namely: da Volterra brought down two of the most "indecent" figures and draped nudity of most of the rest. The Vatican "only" was replaced by the Pope. The fresco well and had been criticized for the nudity of the characters, seems to be inappropriate in the Church, especially in Vatican. Daniele Da Volterra, "the Bethlehem massacre of the innocents"Photo: ru.wikipedia.org However, the required environment of the Popes themselves masters of the Vatican adhered to rigid opinions: great work will remain as it is! While the Vatican throne took Paul IV, ordered to "dress" the characters of "the Last judgment". Michelangelo himself of the instructions refused, offering first to the Pope "to lead the world in decent condition". And Volterra agreed, writing the nakedness of most of the characters ' garments and draperies. For this ingratitude he won the nickname, which remained in the history of art: Braghettone, "stenopeic", "the underpants", "ispolneny". That's just was it with ingratitude? Proposed various options to "fix" the altar wall: of the total entry over the existing to "knock down and paint again." Yes, Volterra made the main, decorate painting teacher on top. So, what's next "decorators" could only "finish" his work. Volterra, it seems, is simply priceless saved the mural from destruction. Yes and he began the work during the life of the teacher and the patron, so he probably was aware of.
And even — who knows — not giving any tips on how to that helped the student sketches for his works? Daniele Da Volterra, "the Prophet Elijah"Photo: ru.wikipedia.org Characteristically, the relationship between masters is not spoiled. Which, given the complex nature of Michelangelo, says a lot. Soon after the "fix" Michelangelo leaves this world. It is known that in the last hours with him were five people: two doctors, a servant, a longtime and closest friend Tommaso Cavalieri and Daniele da Volterra... and remain in the history of Braghettone-"stanovice"......
This article describe tags: sculptor, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Italy
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