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Where do you get the money for the car? For your son? The government want to get the right to ask the Russians such issues to bring to light all shadow incomes and to convince citizens to pay taxes.
the Possibility of universal cost control, the Russians became one of the main news of the summer. The Deputy Director of Department of investment policy Ministry of economic development of Bella Panina said that the Ministry is considering the introduction of a system of monitoring both income and expenses of citizens to combat the shadow economy. And although the MAYOR denied the words of the clerk, the sediment remained.
first, it is known that in the government for several years to discuss opportunities to strengthen tax control. And secondly, costs of monitoring — this is an existing initiative: the proposal was made by some Russian regions, complaining about the lack of money in local budgets. How realistic is the introduction of control over expenses of all Russians, whether it is technically possible, than it threatens citizens and, most importantly, will it help the fight against the shadow economy? Banks.ru has collected a dozen of facts about control over expenses of citizens.
the Fact 1. The idea came yesterday
Three years ago, the Ministry of Finance and FNS have said about the need to impose control on large purchases to identify "gray" wages. The discussion came down to nothing: the officials did not understand how to implement the idea in practice.
last year the Federal tax service has asked the Ministry of Finance the right to obtain from banks the information on accounts of Russians for the "improvement of work on detection and suppression of illegal enterprise activity". The Ministry of Finance refused.
in addition, repeatedly discussed initiatives on restriction of cash payments between physical persons and legal entities, as well as the opportunity to reduce the amount of VAT paid by Bank transfer. The ideas also remain under discussion — was not the necessary infrastructure.
the Fact 2. Budget losses due to the shadow economy is huge
15 million Russians are working "in the gray", from-for what the budget annually loses 2.3 trillion rubles in unpaid taxes, said spring Deputy Prime Minister Tatiana Golikova. The world Bank in its latest report on Russia calls the losses of the budget at 2.3% of GDP, given the size of GDP in 2018, which is about the same amount — 2.4 billion rubles.
the Size of the informal sector reaches 20% of GDP, says the Federal service for financial monitoring, according to the IMF, in the "shadow" is the third of the Russian economy. The rating of Bella Panina, budget losses last year amounted to 4 billion rubles.
this is official statistics. Experts ' assessment is more pessimistic: the cumulative losses of the budget and extra-budgetary funds can reach 6.5 trillion rubles a year.
"the First step to detection of shadow income – ratio control of income and expenditure," said Panin. Therefore, although the question is "reverent", it is necessary to solve it, I'm sure the official.
the Fact 3. Cost control was already there... and will be?
First, the cost control was introduced in Russia in 1990-ies. There was a special Declaration, which the Russians were obliged to report the purchase of real estate, automobiles, stocks and shares in companies and even gold bullion. But the fight against "shadow" it did not help: the tax authorities could not determine the source of the money. On the question of where the money to purchase, the most common response was "Accumulated". To prove otherwise the tax authorities was not possible, and control is gone. However, until the 2003 Tax code articles, under which the tax authorities could control the expenses of the Russians.
the Practice of filing declarations of expenditure in Russia continues today, though not for all. "According to FZ № 303 from 3, 2015 to declare their costs should officials and deputies," — says a leading analyst QBF Oleg Bogdanov.
There is another law. "In accordance with the Federal law № 273 "On combating corruption", the Declaration of income, expenses and obligations of property character are required to provide state and municipal officials, heads of public authorities, senior managers, deputies and so forth, and their spouses and minor children, — says Professor of Economics and Finance of the public sector Institute of public service and administration Ranhigs Lyudmila Pronin. — And controlled not just costs, and the matching of costs with revenues above-mentioned persons".
the Effectiveness of these laws corresponds to the Russian proverb "the Law that pole, as you turn, and so it happened" and reminiscent of "Russian roulette".
the Fact 4. Hide taxes not only officials, but also the whole government
Left income can be not only individual officials and civil servants of all kinds, but as much as government organizations. For example, the Federal Agency for state property management: in mid-June, the chamber said that the government do not know how much land is in their possession, how many of them give up and what income it brings to the budget.
"the chamber has reviewed the activities of the Federal property Agency and found numerous violations under the leasing goszemel — says Lyudmila Pronin. Russian budget loses from the lease of state land to nearly 440 billion rubles a year, said the accounting chamber auditors. But for the same amount of power, decided to carry out an extremely unpopular increase in the retirement age."
Quote Fact # 5. The sense of the present law is not enough
What can you afford on a salary of 46 rubles a month, if you have two kids (daughter is a student and the son-the schoolboy) and the wife is not working? Deputy head rosrezerva in the Siberian Federal district Ilgiz Garifullin allowed himself two apartments in luxury buildings, a 300-meter townhouse, cash savings in the amount of 29 million rubles, $ 300 thousand and 300 thousand euros, an Arsenal of hunting rifles, a collection of watches, more than ten cars, including the Porsche Panamera GTS. Garifullin claims that he did not take bribes, but in Zaeltsovsky district court of Novosibirsk has decided otherwise and in January this year sentenced the official to 13 years in strict regime colony, a fine of 100 million rubles and confiscated all property in the state.
the confiscation of property appeared at the Prosecutor General's office in 2013, has since been withdrawn "acquired by overwork" at 11 billion rubles. Every year, a growing number of officials dismissed, caught on the mismatch of income and costs. In 2016, for this reason lost his job about 400 people in 2017 to 1.2 million, in 2018 to 1.3 million people. But obviously it is a drop in the bucket, because the Declaration annually serves about 1.6 million civil servants.
to avoid too much attention, officials massively divorced, "leaving" wives lion's share of the state, someone suddenly rich mother-pensioner or mother-in-law, in General, there is a formal law, but it works, probably selectively. "It's worth noting that now the situation in this area is improving, as is becoming more effective automatic exchange of tax information, allowing to obtain information about operations and on foreign accounts," — said the President of the Association of social entrepreneurs the novel Alekhin.
However, the idea of regions is slightly different — to establish control over all citizens of the country. Every little helps, as they say. But as far as is technically possible, does it make economic sense and could we do without it?
the Fact Fact 6. Everything will be possible in the near future
"If to speak about acquisition of the property, the title to which arises at the moment of inclusion in state register (property, vehicle), in this case, the control can be arranged at the moment by informing the tax authorities about the relevant expenditure transactions of the taxpayer", — says a leading lawyer of legal firm "cliff" Eugene Mandrusov.
Indeed, in the formulation vehicle registration traffic reports information to the tax authorities: reports all data for transport tax on purchase of real estate tax learn from rosreestra. But this is not enough.
"Most of the operations are technically not registers: the so-called luxury goods categories, luxury goods, work and services rendered in respect of existing property (for example, costly repairs or the improvement of already existing properties, the construction of the pool and so on, says Mandrusov. — To organize continuous control over expenditure transactions and declaring all categories of taxpayers it was unlikely in the near future."
But all these difficulties — a matter of time.
The development of cashless payments, improving IT platforms, online cash, the exchange of information between FNS and FCS of Russia, inclusion in the system of "marking" an increasing number of goods, information about transactions from Russian banks, the tax authorities of foreign countries and separately – from countries of the CIS – all this will gradually make the control more and more widespread.
the Fact 7. Tax authorities will help banks
"Considerable, if not primary, role to play banks, because they know all receipts and expenditures of clients, — the Director of the office of sales "BCS" Vyacheslav Abramov. — Of course, they can provide support in this matter. Because now practices are applied, when, if necessary, individuals can block bills in the event of non-payment of fines by the court to write off debt."
To what extent cooperation with the banks might even be convenient. "Today, the majority of citizens are not engaged in a separate tax reporting, so the introduction of the obligation to declare their expenses can cause difficulty, says the President of the Association of social entrepreneurs the novel Alekhin. — Itself "Declaration of costs" sounds more negative as associated with unnecessary and incomprehensible actions of citizens. At the same time now, it is sufficient technologies to consider costs. So, you can upload the data from banking applications – now, many keep records of their expenses on the map with the help of mobile Bank".
the Fact 8. Shadows do not disappear even in the afternoon
to Track purchases only when you pay with a card, and there are many who are not ready to completely abandon the cash. In particular, changes are not interested in used car dealers. Often in the showrooms when the card is charged an additional fee.
in addition, although the purchase of real estate or vehicle passes through the respective registers and is logged to prove what amount was paid for the purchase impossible. A fairly common situation where the official price is undervalued.
Another option: make purchases on third parties having a legitimate income, or is the contract of sale to make the deed. "Who should deal hide without problems, — said head of analysis and strategic marketing PSB Nicholas Kashcheev. — You can tighten the screws all you want, but people did some "business" even in the 1930-ies".
let's Say, something will remain in the shadows forever, but it is obvious that you can "light up" a substantial part of income, thereby increasing tax collection. Only now do I need to do?
the Fact 9. Cost control secondary
"the European Bank will not hold payment for a house until you provide documentation on how you earned conditional million euros. If you got the money from the sale of the previous property, you will be asked to provide documentary proof of income, which previously allowed the property to buy", — says the head of the Luxembourg office of a consulting company KRK Group Nikita Ryabinin.
In fact, this indirect control over expenditure. It involves notaries and law firms that need to verify the source of funds for any large financial transaction.
the lowest rates of shadow economy in those countries where control over the income and expenses of citizens occupies a large place, he draws attention Vyacheslav Abramov. The US, Japan and China. But this is no argument for the introduction of similar controls in Russia. "If these countries in parallel with the reforms in the universal Declaration or the implementation of measures to control costs has improved domestic investment climate, they received a positive effect, — says the analyst of management operations on the Russian stock market IR "freedom Finance" Alexander Osin. But the role of control over expenditure or income itself is secondary".
the Fact is the Fact 10. Even the shadow costs of working on the economy
the Financial authorities found the wrong time for fight against the informal sector economici. After all, aside from the obvious problems in unpaid taxes to the budget of the "grey" business offers and important decision.
When we talk about the self-employed, individual entrepreneurs, small and medium-sized business, you have to keep in mind that the revenues seldom go to purchase luxury items or removed from the country on account of foreign banks. Considering that the income in the country fall to sixth a year ago, we can safely assume that the wages "in envelopes" will immediately go into the formal sector of the economy in the form of consumer spending. "Control over expenses of citizens belonging to the middle class and the poor who live from paycheck to paycheck or even get a poverty benefit, does not make sense, — says Lyudmila Pronin. — In General, the increase of expenses of citizens stimulate consumption, and hence economic growth".
It would be helpful if the MAYOR is thinking about controlling costs, and how to eliminate the causes that drive ordinary people "in the shadow". "The complexity of official business or a large tax burden is such that it casts doubt on the appropriateness of activities outside of the "shadow," suggests the answer the head of Department of regional development IFK "solid" Alexey Klochko. "It is impossible to come to light, if the light burns," — said Nikolai Kashcheev.
the(Almost) fact 11. Control over expenditures is to be
While the prospect of universal control over expenditures is unclear. Deputy Director of the Department, the MAYOR announced the intention of the authorities, but gave no details: what is the threshold of expenditure covered by the Declaration, will be the validation in the case of gifts of large amount.
the control System of expenses of Russians will not be introduced tomorrow, but if the government started talking about them, soon you may receive another bill, said Vyacheslav Abramov.
"the Question of economic growth is not on the agenda, so the tax burden may grow in future," says Nicholas Kashcheev.
the Fact 12. Control — so big
the Fight against tax evasion should start with those who receive illegal income in especially large amounts, experts say.
"the state has all the mechanisms in order to make life difficult for the corrupt, cutting off access to opportunities to buy property, cars, precious items, works of art, obliged to make all payments with a certain amount in the form of cash, and banks have to verify the origin of funds and confirm payment of taxes on these funds, — said Nikita Ryabinin. But this requires political will, because this fight in the first place will hit the interests of corrupt officials".
Milena BAKHVALOVA, Banki.ru
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