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As the telegram to jump over the ocean?

Shkolazhizni.ru :.: Article 21.08.2019 at 21:00

Shkolazhizni.ru :.: Article

If you believe that sea water and the solid earth God created, it should be immediately noted that he has distributed them on the surface of the earth unevenly. And so, to get from continent to continent, people have to deal with oceans. Which, it should be said, are a very good barrier. Yes there are oceans and seas! In a picturesque lake district rider could half day ride a horse from one castle to another, although these castles were within each other's sight. Easier the tower's signal fire to light than a messenger to send. In the nineteenth century a messenger rushed from point A to point B at the speed of light: was invented the Telegraph. Now the message is passed from one end to the other sushi in a split second. And then what? On the same drawing: Director Cyrus field, the route of the cable from Ireland to Newfoundland and the device underwater cabaletta: ru.wikipedia.org to connect the continents, it was necessary to lay an underwater cable of several thousand kilometers across the ocean floor. It is time to freeze in anguish "on the shore of desert waves": is it possible? However, in 1850-ies, when this question arose, many scientists and engineers have not doubt his positive decision. Among these enthusiasts were, for example, the famous Samuel Morse (1791 — 1872). In 1842 he laid on the bottom of new York Bay, the undersea cable in which the copper wire saltwater protected rubber insulation and tarred hemp coils. Through this cable the inventor gave several telegrams and made sure that the principle is correct. Several similar experiments have been carried out in Europe. And in St. Petersburg the possibility of submarine telegraphy was testing a Russian scientist B. S. Jacobi, intending to lay a cable under the Baltic sea from the capital to Kronstadt. Since 1850 submarine cables connected England, France, Holland and Germany. And it turned out that it was good. Coating Telegraph submarine cable, the gutta-percha factory in Grineviciute: ru.wikipedia.org after some time, Werner Siemens (Werner Siemens, 1816-1892) proposed for a Telegraph wire insulator better than natural rubber — gutta-percha. Gutta-percha was, as well as rubber, frozen juice of a tropical plant that has grown in Malaya. However, unlike rubber, gutta-percha does not crack in cold water, and therefore better suited to laying underwater cable. Gutta-percha was the main insulator lines up until the mid 1930-ies, when it was replaced by polyethylene. So, technically, the task of laying underwater transoceanic cable was quite solvable. In an economic benefit, too, no doubt. Main interested parties in the creation of a global Telegraph network was the most powerful at that time an industrial power, the United Kingdom. Who primarily was interested in laying the transatlantic cable? Telegraph stamp of the British & Irish Magnetic Telegraph Co. Limited, approx. 1862 Photos: ru.wikipedia.org first, the owners of trading and shipping companies. The exchange of messages with the New world at that time was slow: at one end, the letter was ten days. The Telegraph laid from Europe to America would reduce the message delivery time to the addressee to seconds. This meant that across the ocean it will be possible to conclude contracts. And the captains of vessels arriving in the port of destination, somewhere on the edge of the world, could receive clear instructions about where to go next and what to carry to the return flight was the best. Second, in the laying of a cable across the Atlantic was interested the government of the British Empire stretched around the world. By Telegraph it was possible to maintain effective contact with the governors of subordinated territories from India to Canada and Australia. The military could quickly get orders and move them to any desired point troops and ships. Thirdly, the world Telegraph network was interested in information agencies (e.g. Reuters). In the colonies, was home to a large number of Europeans, and the news of the world ceased to be exotic. All become interested in events in the far lands beyond the oceans. For example, in 1855, when there was the Crimean war, the English engineers quickly laid on the bottom of the Black sea cable from Balaklava to Varna, and the latest news about the siege of Sevastopol began to appear in all European Newspapers almost in real time (as we would say now). Telegraph steadily gained a place as the fastest news provider, and to become a truly global means of communication, he had "only" to make the leap across the ocean. In the "Atlantic Telegraph" consisted of important people. Cyrus field in the foreground. In the center background — Samuel Morsetto: ru.wikipedia.org And yet, despite the optimism, the laying of the transatlantic cable has left the project too expensive and too risky. To take him, and most importantly, to bring this project to fruition, could only a man bold and decisive. That person turned out American entrepreneur Cyrus West field (1819 -1892). In 1856, he founded and headed the Anglo-American "Atlantic Telegraph" with a capital of 350 thousand pounds sterling. It was a big amount at the current price scale is equal to 1.4 million dollars. The Board of the company consisted of important people, and the governments of both countries and the UK, and the USA — provided the project significant support, such as granting to a company powerful ships for cable laying on the ocean floor. To be continued......

This article describe tags: Telegraph, communications