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In ancient Athens Athens scientists of the German archaeological Institute have discovered thirty of lead plates written on them curses. Plates were dropped on the bottom of an ancient well.
the German archaeological Institute conducts excavations of the Kerameikos district since 1913. In 2011, his staff began a project on the exploration and mapping of ancient wells, since they found more than forty wells. Well B34 was in the yard of the public bath in front of Diplomski gate. Round barrel water well was built in the IV century BC and was used for nearly a thousand years before the Slavic invasions in Athens in the VI century BC It was lined with curved limestone blocks, the diameter at the bottom of the well is 2.9 meter from the surface is 1.1 meters, the depth of the well is 7 meters.
Almost the entire depth of the well and are now filled with groundwater, which greatly hampered the excavations. To drain it, archaeologists had to use four pumps. In the end, they gained access to the subjects at different times fallen to the bottom of the well. Among them was an earthen lamp, dice, bronze coins, a variety of vessels and their fragments, peach pits, pottery scraper, a small wooden box, a piece of iron chains and thirty lead plates.
Such signs were widely used in the ancient world with magical purposes. They are often lowered into the grave, usually turning in a tube or folded in half, and sometimes pierced with a nail, and it would often prefer to use simple nail taken from the cross of a crucified criminal. In the center of Athens, where in ancient times was a large cemetery of Athens, was previously found for 35 of the plates placed in graves. Scientists noticed that most often for this purpose used the graves of children and people killed in the war.
On the tablets he wrote the texts of curses against offenders, thieves, rivals in love, very often recipients become participants of judicial processes — the representatives of the opposite parties, their witnesses, and sometimes even judges. Plates devoted to litigation, so many that they got a special name tabellae iudicariae. Antique fans, fans of the competitions of the chariots in such tablets were called a curse on the head of voznica of the opposing team or their horses, visitors wrestling competitions or Gladiator fights, too, did not disdain this practice. Authors of curses wished his enemies of death, sickness, mutilation, dumbness, madness, a variety of misfortunes. Meet on the labels and other texts, which, by contrast, had to provide written love a certain person, a kind of ancient "the spell". To ensure the fulfilment of curse or spell called gods. Most often it was the gods associated with the world of the dead: Hermes, Persephone, Hades, Hecate.
the head of the excavation Stroshek yutta (Jutta Stroszeck) said that wells and sacred water bodies, along with the graves served as a venue for the placement of such signs, as it was considered that they will be delivered underground to the gods. Found the plate belong to the IV century BC, Now scientists are busy with their reading. They hope to find on the labels the names of any of famous Athenians of that time.
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