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Phonetic richness of the poem is not confined to only one rhyme. In the old days rarely rhymed, but I loved the so-called alliteration — the deliberate repetition in the poetry of any consonant sounds (such as Mayakovsky: "the city plundered, rowed, was gravastar", "floors already seilis trembling", "castanets crutches", "days like melons", "mighty music mighty dead to fight to raise"). Go to the previous part of the article Alliteration, like rhyme, associated words between them, giving the poem a special expressive sound. Sometimes a similar technique was used in order to draw attention to the very repetitive letter. So Lomonosov wrote a whole poem built on the sound of "g". It was written specifically to the controversy with Trediakovskii, who insisted that the sound "g" is pronounced dull, as is customary in the South of Russia and Ukraine (like Latin h). Here is an excerpt: Hilly beach, favorable moisture,O mountains with clusters, where the warm South lambs,Of castles, where trading, where the brain-round Braga... And money, and guests, with their... are ruining the great skill of Lomonosov shows that of the 95 words of the poem the letter "g" contained as much as 83. The same was done by the experimenter Khlebnikov, who believed that behind every sound and the letter assigned the special deep significance. Here is an excerpt from "the Words of El," Where a puddle prosilica fingers, We told you the palm. When we light, we fly. When people we, the people, light, Love. Favorite ljudima. El is a lightweight, Lely, Point sublime shower, El is the beam weight... Velimir of Hlebnikovo: ru.wikipedia.org However, excessive emphasis of one sound may sound artificial and Intrusive. At the time, these excessive alliteration was fond of K. Balmont, who wrote poems like: Night. Seaside. The sighing of the wind.The majestic cry of the waves.The storm close in shore VIETSECURITY charms black boat...Alien to the charms of pure happiness,the Boat of longing, canoe trevogami shore, struggling with the storm,Seeking the sweet dreams Palace... K. D. Balmont in the 1880s Photo: ru.wikipedia.org And if first similar experiences fascinated the audience, then a rare poet mocked balmontovskaya the "Canoe" as an example of durnovkusie. Abuse of alliteration can generally turn the place to unpronounceable tongue-Twister, like "Bare calf Golems of Gomel". But in the poem of Osip Mandelstam roll call "dry" and hissing sounds sounds a lot more elegant: That sing watch the grasshopper.Fever rustles And rustles the dry stove, Is a red silk is burning.That teeth mouse tocicity thin bottom Is a swallow and cockatail my Shuttle... literally hear the ticking of the clock, the crackling fire, the rustling of mice. As in Pushkin's lines heard: the Hiss of foam baculovi punch... blue flame Hissing foam of bakalavrat: congerdesign, pixabay.com ...and in the poetry of Mayakovsky "...the ringing of bronze or granite face?" Most often the alliteration are metered, so the sound does not become monotonous. You shot me shot,and shots trill hit in Dali,dal lost — I shot the distance,but even gave living not sorry...V. Khodasevich You in the wind, branch sampling,No time do the birds sing,Soaked veronicazemanova branch!Boris Pasternak, Vladislav Khodasevich. Photo P. Noise. Paris. 1920s — early 1930s Photo: ru.wikipedia.org in addition to the repetition of consonants, poets use repetition of stressed vowels sounds. This poetic technique is called assonance (not to be confused with assonance rhymes) and is often found in folk songs: ...brand-new senny, all of maple and of lattice... ...you Fly, my Falcon, high and far... the same repetition of "O" will find J. Velichkovsky: the Word plotnosenow fruitful. And then Focus on the sound "U" in Pushkin: I Wander along noisy Streets,Enter eh in the crowded temple,Sitting among eh boys crazy,I indulge in my dreams... Konstantin Avdeev, "Young dreamer", 2017 Photo: artchive.ru Alliteration and assonance does not require continuous use throughout the poem. In contrast rhyming, repetitive, regular, sound repetitions within verses appear, then disappear, then barely caught, then heard very clearly. So when after a number of "neutral" sound in relation to the poems arise is clearly audible repeats, a verse stands out.In. Holshevnikov of Experimenting with sounds, poets sometimes tried to engage and direct onomatopoeia. Here's how Sumarokov portrayed the croaking of frogs: Oh, how, Oh, how we to you, to you, gods, do not read! Wings — Nightingale trill: That small shot suddenly through the grove crumbled... and Vysotsky — the roar of a diving Yak-fighter: mirror of your home! R. Kipling in the poem "Dust" gave the sound of marching detachment of the rhythmic repetition of short words: Day-night-day-night — we go to Africa,the Day-night-day-night — all for the same Africa(Dust-dust-dust-dust — from walking boots!) Vacation no war!Translation A. Aniskovich-jacyna by the Way, in translated poetry is the effect of onomatopoeia is often lost. So in the poem "the Raven" E. Po feathered harvestec constantly croaked: "Nevermore!" However, the Russian analogue of the word "Never!" — completely disappeared this ominous croaking sound, and the poem is very much lost. In the end, one of the translators of M. Zenkevich just decided to leave it untranslated and, I think, was absolutely right. Illustration by Gustave doré for the poem PoE "the Raven"Photo: ru.wikipedia.org of Course, the sound of the poem does not have to be directly related to its content. However, it is clear that if you write about the battle, then lots of soft sounds will reduce the intensity of the poem. How will inappropriate use of "snarling" and the hard sounds in the transmission of tender feelings. For example G. Derzhavin often avoided the rude sound of "R". He wrote entire poems, deprived of this sound — "Swallow", "Butterfly", "a Nightingale in a dream". And in the poem "Silence" Derzhavin deliberately enters the "R" only in the last lines, where: ...Thundered the balalaika,And I glory in the silence. So, the repetition of similar sounds is one of the main features of the phonetics of the poem. Another feature is the repetition of entire words and phrases — there was, apparently, in the days when poetry was inseparable connected with the music. After all, the lyrics are characteristic of the repeating lines and stanzas (refrains and choruses). And what in prose would sound too boring and cumbersome, poetry and songs can be quite organically. Here is an excerpt from a rather long songs ALICE, every line of the verse beginning with "Where" and ends with the refrain "There go I": ...Where the mornings are bathed in the wells dvorova in cold puddles,Where dirt has engaged with spring codestore.Where a SIP as a reward for past dennou without sleep,Where drunken crosses,there go I..."Sterkh", "Alice" in 1999 Photo: ru.wikipedia.org In pure poetry it is desirable that the repetition was more moderate and diverse. Only children's books to read,Only children thought to cherish,more and more far dispel From deep sadness to rise...O. Mandelstam Wait for me, and I'll be back.Only a wait,wait, when you direct grostete rains,Wait when snow sweep,Wait, when the heat,Wait, when others do not wait,having Forgotten yesterday.Wait, when from distant mastbaum will not come,Wait, when it nadonestam who waits together...Konstantin Simonov Konstantin Mikhailovich Simonotto: G. Kapustyanskiy, ru.wikipedia.org here is an example of poems in which the intensity of feeling passed not so much rhyme and meter exactly how much repetition: And music, music, musicaltheatre in my singing,And narrow, narrow, usherusher me blade...V. Khodasevich You just be —I will break through tears.You just be —I mean-read by syllables.You just be Like the sky, the forest, the air!You just be...And all.You will be getting.Always.You just be! bless you! bless you! you be!!!Favorite!...just..don't have to.Just be.Always.Not even close.Just be...Can I?.....be...S. Aksenenko Often in the poems, like songs, is repeating some refrain. As in "Poem of the End" of M. Tsvetaeva: Fog Belokurova — flounce gas.Nadishana, smoky,And most importantly — raskazano!What do you smell? Rush extreme,indulgence is shown and peccadillo Commercial tinami ball powder.Bachelors semeinyi rings, youngsters venerable...Asucena, nesmejana,And most importantly — counted!Large and small,And stigma, and fuzz....Commercial salcamii ball powder... After a theoretical overview it is time to talk about the most common mistakes which poets (sometimes even famous) allow the phonetics of his poems. The most common mistake in versification are dissonant clusters in one place consonants and vowels. For example, "Suddenly felt sad...", "Oh, often used with chocolate...", "I See the house of Mary and Jesus...". Usually such errors appear when the poet writes a poem, just transferring it from my brain to the paper.
But the fact that the record can impress quite digestible works when reading aloud finds all its shortcomings — the sounds begin to merge, language totter, and the words "tumble" and "stuck" in your mouth. I remember once I wrote the next lines of the anthem comic of animals: If there is a beak — tweet,If there's mouth shout... But once I start singing, as I realized that quickly and clearly pronounce the combination "If" does not work. Had the word "there" at all to throw away, good song is allowed: If the beak — tweet If mouth roar... Sometimes it happens that standing next to the words merge together so that they begin to be perceived quite differently. Such unpredictable combinations of known writer A. Kwiatkowski called the shift. In his "Poetic dictionary" he cites some great examples (discovered, incidentally, is not the scribblers, and recognized classics): Heard only (lions) beyond the grove the voice of neznayeva of love and sings of sorrow?A. Pushkin In the midday heat in the valley of Dagestanis lead (with wine) in the chest was immovable I.M. Lermontovskoj, quiet waves, Ron (wave Myron)And harvest oroshi.To. Batyushkov, Alexander p. Kwiatkowski, poet, slihouette: ru.wikipedia.org and the most funny: Leaked, the rascal! Uzho wait, (Y, ass, Hey)tomorrow, I will Deal with you. A. Block However, some wags have heard the f word and in the phrase Tsvetaeva "...and ball powder" but in this case it's more their problem. Do not forget also that misperception can be caused by and characteristic of poetry pauses, which do not always coincide with syntax. A textbook example that has led Marshak, is the string pleshcheeva, "And, laughing, decrepit hand stroking it...". Despite the comma, rhythmic pause dividing a line so that we hear: "Laughing hand...". In order to not "laughing hand" and not "down with the wine in the chest", is a poem it is necessary to read aloud before showing to the General public. And even better — to constantly chant the lines are still in the process of writing. I repeat, to chant out loud than in my head. Poetry should be perceived by the ears. With regard to reciting poems in public, the main thing is to avoid monotony and seuniversity. You need to read expressively, but without fanaticism, not trying to make every line of emotional shock. Mention only the important places. Pronounce words clearly. Take your time, pause so the listener could perceive what was said. Gustave Moreau, "Wandering poet," 1870s Photo: artchive.ru once in Soviet times, Andrei Voznesensky shocked the audience in the hall, loudly chanting: Take Lenin... And, after the necessary pause before the numb "anti-Soviet" by the public, adding softly: ...with money. To be continued......
This article describe tags: prosody, poetry, assonance, alliteration, poetic devices
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