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Residents of the relatively quiet from the point of view of seismic activity of territories, usually do not think about how to behave and what first to do in the event of an earthquake. Their theoretical training on this topic is limited to a brief lecture on a school geography lesson or safety and has no use in real life. And thank God!
however, international experience shows that mother nature is not always so favorable to its careless children. From time to time disasters happen, even where no one knew about this possibility. So, to have the skills of rescue and first aid in natural disasters should every. As they say, if you want peace, prepare for war. Or more simply: God helps those who help themselves.
What is earthquake and how it threatens
Earthquakes are of different nature and have different causes of origin, but in its most common meaning by an earthquake are called aftershocks and oscillations, emerging under the earth and on its surface.
this is due to tectonic shifts, climbs the lava with the volcanic eruptions, the collapse of underground cavities, the destruction of mines and other natural and artificial processes. Whatever the causes, every earthquake has a focus (point of origin) and the epicenter (point of the surface).
In all directions from the source with a speed of 8 km/s radially divergent shock wave, whose strength decreases as one moves away from the epicenter of the earthquake. Thus, the greatest damage occurs near the earthquake epicenter.
As you know, the ocean takes more than 90% of the surface area of the Earth, and because most of the earthquakes occur on the ocean floor and remain unnoticed by the inhabitants of the continents. The destruction they bring just in case, if they provoke a tsunami. And in General, earthquakes can sometimes be much more than was known to wide circles of the population – up to a million during the year.
Just almost all of them are so small that record can only special equipment of observation stations geoactivity. But infrequent but powerful movements of the earth's surface bring to mankind so much damage that is long remembered.
the force of the earthquake and the intensity of damage inflicted by them is measured by several officially accepted in the world parameters, each of which created its own scale. The most common scoring system – scale of the Richter magnitude, which characterizes the amount of energy released during seismic activity.
To understand not scientists, seismologists, and ordinary people are much more comfortable 12-point scale measuring the intensity of earthquakes. According to her, the earthquake intensity from 1 to 3 units are considered weak and do not bring devastating effects.
an Earthquake of intensity 4 to 6 units leads to a significant damage, and from 7 to 9 to the destruction and loss of life. The earthquake, estimated at 10 units and more assimilated to natural disasters and catastrophes, the ruins of cities and failures in the soil.
it is Useful to know that, statistically, most victims in earthquakes are killed and injured not in the collapsed buildings and falling objects, such as chandeliers, heavy furniture and glass from the high floors. In practice, this information means that the preparation for the earthquake should be to strengthen and fixing those items that can drop, docking, sliding door wardrobes, glassware, mirrors and heavy paintings.
the Furniture is better to move away from walls and not to put where it can prevent you from leaving the premises, and/or where people sleep. This is especially true of buildings that were built without regard to seismic strength, and these include all homes older than 1965, high-rise panel house without seysmopoyasa, remodeled apartment.
But the fact is that predicting the timing of earthquakes with such precision, which will allow you to plan the evacuation programme, science still can not. Therefore, even without prior training should be able to Orient in time and not to get lost when the earthquake starts.
the Rules of behavior during the earthquake
Even buildings without special seismic fortifications, but is in good operating condition, capable of withstanding an earthquake of intensity up to 6 units, inclusively. Moreover, that earthquakes usually last for a short time, and duration of the strongest aftershocks do not usually exceed one minute.
However, this time is enough to seriously damage old buildings and unstable construction. Therefore, the room in which you were during the earthquake, not knowing for sure about its technical characteristics, you need to act very quickly and smoothly with others. Try to memorize and accurately reproduce the steps in these instructions:
1. The first thing you need to do is pull myself together and completely eliminate the possibility of panic. Just forbid yourself to panic. Chaotic, reckless behavior, is one of the main causes of casualties during natural disasters.
2. If the earthquake occurs at night, especially at night, and caught you while you sleep, do not waste time on dressing up and searching the familiar garments. The maximum that you need to capture is the jacket (if its cold outside) in the hallway and the documents, if their search will not take much time. Don't turn the light on, better take a flashlight.
3. Maybe turn on the lights you have will not work – the electricity can be turned off, as other means of communication. Again, this should not scare you and knock of the active track. The alarm, sound the siren, the roar of the cracking of walls and the falling of dishes and the cries of the people – all this is psychologically very difficult to sustain, keeping calm, but you'll have to do it for our own survival.
4. If the beginning of the earthquake caught you inside the building, especially on one of the floors above the third, try as soon as possible to leave it and go outside. Going down, beware of falling and potentially dangerous items. Once outside, hurry away from the house and power lines at the greatest possible distance.
5. Leaving the upper floors of the building, use a black ladder or a trampoline if rescuers already managed to install it under Windows. Elevators during an emergency, is likely to be blocked, and on the grounds in front of them will crowd the people that interfere with each other and you will be saved.
6. Contrary to popular myth, door and window openings are not the safest place in the building during its destruction by the earthquake. This statement may have been fair earlier, when houses were built of brick, and door bushings are machined from solid pieces of wood. Today, when most of the buildings are prefabricated or based on modern frame technology, openings are crumbling as easily as walls.
7. But strong, solid tables and/or beds – really a relatively safe shelter in a house that is falling apart. So if you understand that it is not time to leave the apartment/room/office, try to find a table and hide under it, grouped and covering his head with his hands.
8. If you remember and have time, open those doors you'll see on your way during the earthquake, when the walls are tilted, many doors are locked. You can help other people, which will run here for you.
9. Out on the street and retreating to a safe distance from the building, make sure that you are not in the area of the falling glass, antennas and other fragments – this distance can be considered safe. Especially need to be careful in relation to the line posts and straining wires.
10. During an earthquake often raised is the dust and possible leakage of flammable and combustible substances. This is the case try to close the airway (nose and mouth), at least their own clothes, if rescuers did not provide gas masks.
11. Earthquake is uneven. After the first series of aftershocks may lull, which again will change the vibrations of the earth. So do not hurry to return to the building even to assist. Nevertheless, do not forget about others and, if possible, help them any way I can. Sometimes the hint and direction of movement that is necessary to save the life of another person.
So you have read the basic instructions for behavior during an earthquake caught you in the city, in familiar surroundings. But the area of effect of the earthquake is very extensive, and because let's look at a few unusual situations that can happen to you or your friends, and they also need to act carefully and quickly:
on the road.
All moving vehicles must be stopped immediately, this applies to both road and rail transport. The driver is obliged to open all the doors and give passengers the opportunity to leave the cars and/or salon. With the exception of the road passing under bridges and other large structures unreliable.
In this case, need to depart from them, and only then to go outside. In any case, you can't stop under the bridge. Personal car at the beginning of the earthquake, should immediately stop, but to stay in it. Metal body can protect you from falling debris.
While in the hotel room, you need to act just as in your own apartment. Here may disable the elevators, the zone alarm firewall application. Do not panic and use this emergency stairway. Focus on the evacuation plan posted on each floor.
If the start of the earthquake you were on the beach or on the promenade as soon as possible keep away from the water. On the coast of possible high waves and even tsunamis. If you see a sharp ebb in the minute in its place there is a stream of water that will cover the shore.
the Majority of office premises, equipped with alarm systems and anti-fire devices. Rather, they work at the beginning of the earthquake. At the same time, many modern buildings designed for offices that do not have a special trade and crumbling fast enough. So you need to act quickly.
Once in the lift, leave it as soon as possible, so as not to get stuck in the cockpit. If you are working on a very high floor and do not have time to leave the building on foot, find a solid Desk and hide under it. Another more-or-less safe place in the corner between the bearing walls. Make sure that the pieces panoramic Windows, office equipment, safes and heavy furniture will not hurt you in case of a fall.
How to behave after an earthquake
How to behave during an earthquake? After the tremors pass from immediate danger to life and health, but the solution to the major problems caused by natural disaster, begins. Depending on the power of the earthquake, it may be rubble, searching for people and clearing the streets from fallen electrical wires and sharp pieces.
the elimination of the consequences of the earthquake – the task of the special rescue units, you must take care of their own safety and the safety of their loved ones at this time and continue in similar situations. For this rate the current situation.
do Not approach the buildings, they can still continue to crumble. Do not walk on the pieces and where possible leakage of hazardous substances. Inspect them in the presence of injuries that could not feel because of the shock. And just in case the power goes out, if you haven't already.
All your family members must be familiar with the rules of conduct during an earthquake. Show them where the electric plugs, switches, gas and water in the house. Assign point and gathering place in case if some of you get lost or find yourself far away from other when re-earthquake.
the fact that seismic activity can be quite long, and the periods of lull would be only temporary. But while you have some (unspecified) amount of time to prepare for new attacks. Try in this period to prepare the bag: large enough but such that you can carry on your shoulder, not slowing down a step.
it will get basic identity documents, money and medications. This also put a portable flashlight and portable radio.
as for the supply of power, try to find products that do not deteriorate, tolerate extremes of temperature and mechanical pressure. Ideally, this canned food, but not in heavy banks. The supply of water is also necessary. Well, if you manage to store it all in a safe place away from the epicenter of destruction.
in addition, learn all the ins and outs of the nearby buildings, learn where the emergency escape routes, fire hydrants, fire extinguishers and gas masks.
have you had from 3 to 24 hours in an emergency evacuation from a dangerous area. But the exact time of aftershocks impossible to predict, so don't loiter, keep the spirit and be attentive to what is happening around. As a rule, the beginning of the earthquake is kind of like being on a ship's deck when the floor leaves from under feet, and loose objects and move rings.
Seeing this, do not hesitate and follow these instructions. This greatly increases your chances of a successful rescue.
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