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The supply of new buildings in the Moscow housing market is declining, but the competition for buyers does not weaken. The appearance of new buildings is one of the fronts of competition between developers, which has been undergoing changes in recent years. Experts of the Rodina Group talk about new trends in approaches to the formation of facade solutions for new buildings, and also illustrate them with examples from the practice of the project of the cultural and educational cluster Russian Design District.
1. "Beautiful facades" does not mean "expensive facades"
To create a solid facade appearance, developers do not have to buy expensive finishing materials. Inexpensive cladding can also be spectacular, since the quality of imitation of natural textures has reached a high level.
For example, a textured coating based on polyester resins is applied to composite panels, which imitates wood, quartz, metallic, stone. Clinker facade panels are made in the form of bricks or natural masonry. All these materials are simultaneously used in new buildings of different classes, bringing together the quality and aesthetics of their appearance. At the same time, such facades have already become even more convenient and economical in operation than from the imitated original.
Meanwhile, the architecture of high-budget complexes has also changed in recent years. Often it is characterized by minimalism, and flashy or pretentious finishing materials are not used. Architects strive to create a modern and progressive appearance of the building.
2. Bright colors are less and less preferred
The "fashion" for bright color solutions is passing. Colors that are unnatural for nature or the existing urban development remain in economy - and occasionally comfort-class projects. The architectural authorities of Moscow have also in recent years paid more attention to the coloring of new buildings when approving developers ' projects.
N. B. The aesthetic preferences of the Moscow authorities can be indirectly judged by the first buildings built under the renovation program. So, in the new building on the 5th Park Street (Northern Izmailovo), gray, beige and dark brown colors dominate. The house in the village of Shishkin Forest (New Moscow) is made in cream tones with splashes of dark green and light brown. The building on Agricultural Street (Rostokino) is faced with a mosaic of light gray and beige panels. The houses in Cheryomushki, Perov and in the Voikovsky district are lined with imitation bricks of red and brown color.
Architects try to attract the attention of potential buyers and citizens not by the brightness of colors, but by an unusual combination of materials used. For example, in the Russian Design District, the facade of one of the towers, designed with the participation of the invited "star architect" of the prima ballerina of the Bolshoi Theater Svetlana Zakharova, uses the texture and colors of noble woods, dark matte metallized lines and metal perforated panels. The fashion designer Valentin Yudashkin reproduced a white satin canvas with bright gold accents in architecture. The facade of the house is made of glossy aluminum composite panels with a combination of two colors: gold and white. Industrial designer Vladimir Pirozhkov combined metal surfaces with brushed processing and braided decorative elements on the facades. Conductor Valery Gergiev emphasized wood as the material from which most of the orchestra's instruments are made. Actor and director Vladimir Mashkov chose mirror surfaces for the facade. The combination of natural materials with glass and metal always gives a very advantageous effect for the long term, says Stanislav Kulish, the architect of the project of the cultural and educational cluster Russian Design District
3. Materials and technologies for facades are becoming more complex
In recent years, the approach to choosing the main material for the facades of new buildings has changed. At first glance, there is no shortage of materials, but the aesthetic preferences of buyers and technologies are different today.
" Technology, of course, does not stand still. The emergence of new methods of building frames, facades and engineering allow architects to significantly expand their range of techniques and mutual combinations of author's solutions. For example, metal composite panels today are a very serious competition to the usual HPL and fiber cement, " says Stanislav Kulish, the architect of the project of the cultural and educational cluster Russian Design District.
N. B. HPL-panels (English high pressure laminate – " laminate obtained under high pressure) is a finishing material made of several layers of kraft paper and wood fiber impregnated with thermoactive resins. Under pressure and temperature, plastic is obtained from them. They are resistant to fire, high temperatures and direct sunlight. At the same time, HPL can imitate almost any material, including wood, in color and texture.
Fiber cement panel consists of lightweight concrete with synthetic fiber (fiber) and an outer ceramic layer. They are resistant to environmental influences and well imitate stone, tile, brick, plaster.
Metal composite panels resemble a "sandwich" of a polymer material enclosed between two metal (usually aluminum) sheets with various adhesive and protective films. Light and unpretentious. They imitate any kind of natural materials.
Meanwhile, the previously popular porcelain stoneware is gradually losing its position. It practically disappeared from the requirements for the front surfaces of buildings, and the attempt of manufacturers to increase and diversify its dimensions did not bring success.
Wet facades are attached directly to the outer wall of the building (more precisely, to the insulation), and then they are lined with various types of plaster. Ventilated facades assume voids between the hinged part and the outer wall, so they are called ventilated.
Wet facades are cheaper, they are easier to install, and the plaster layer can be painted in any color. Minus – for their installation, you need good weather, plus temperature and low humidity. In addition, wet facades require regular thorough and complex cleaning. Customers prefer ventilated facades more often. In particular, they are used in the architecture of the cultural and educational cluster Russian Design District. Such facades can be built at any time of the year, they hide the irregularities of the walls and expand the choice of architectural solutions. At the same time, the walls can "breathe", maintaining high thermal insulation – which means that the apartment will always have a comfortable microclimate.
4. Due to the height of new buildings, facade solutions are changing
Over the past five years, the average height of Moscow new buildings has increased by almost five floors. Now most of the new houses that are being built in Moscow are above 20 floors. Dozens of residential skyscrapers above 30 floors have appeared. This set the architects the task of competently integrating these buildings into the urban environment of Moscow, which has never been distinguished by the density of high-rise buildings.
"High – rise buildings form an exclusion zone around themselves, as they require increased attention to themselves as a noticeable architectural object," says Stanislav Kulish, architect of the Russian Design District project – " The facades of such houses should be focused on perception from afar, when neither textures nor, often, color no longer work. Proportions, divisions, and properties of materials come to the fore. Solutions of such facades are created in large strokes, when the integrity of the image can be seen only from a distance.".
5. The individualization of the external appearance of the building reaches a new level
For a long time, developers have been trying to build houses only according to individual projects. Now this process-the individualization of the appearance of a new building-is reaching a new level. Some developers strive to create not only a unique, but also an author's project.
Thus, the architecture of the Russian Design District houses was created by professional architects in collaboration with the stars of Russian design, culture and sports. The invited architects were: the head coach of the Russian national team in rhythmic gymnastics Irina Viner-Usmanova, fashion designer Valentin Yudashkin, conductor Valery Gergiev, fashion designers Igor Chapurin and Vika Gazinskaya, actor and director Vladimir Mashkov, industrial designer Vladimir Pirozhkov and prima ballerina of the Bolshoi Theater of Russia Svetlana Zakharova. In total, nine houses are planned in the cultural and educational cluster, in the appearance of which star architects have invested their ideas.
This approach resonates with the trend towards the spread of branded residences in the high-budget segment of new buildings. To create a complex of apartments or apartments in a premium or elite class, design stars are invited, as well as representatives of brands in the hospitality industry or expensive goods and services. They invest their ideas, knowledge and practices in the project of the complex.
"Facade solutions are gradually becoming more complex and more technologically advanced –" comments Vladimir Shchekin, founder and co-owner of the Rodina Group. - I believe that the next stage will be the introduction of fundamentally new materials that were previously unknown to us. For example, it can be different versions of nanotechnologies, for example, that do not allow dirt or dust to settle on the surface of buildings. Of course, at first such innovations will come to the expensive segment of housing, but in the long term they will also spread to mass markets, among other things due to savings on operating costs."
The minimum cost of a studio in the Russian Design District is 5.2 million rubles (26 sq. m), a one-room apartment-6.3 million rubles (33 sq. m), a two – room apartment – 8.4 million rubles (49 sq.m), a three-room apartment-8.8 million rubles (52.4 sq. m).
Russian Design District (RDD) is the first cultural and educational cluster in New Moscow from the Rodina Group. RDD is located 18 km from the MKAD along the Kaluga highway, on the banks of the Desna River, surrounded by a well-maintained forest park area of 9 hectares with sports and children's infrastructure, with football, volleyball and hockey grounds, workshops, pump tracks, running tracks and space for recreation and walking.
The area of the building site is 4.4 hectares, on which nine residential buildings with author's architecture from the star partners of the project will appear. The total building area will reach 71,056 thousand square meters, and residential-32,862 thousand square meters. 674 apartments have been designed in the buildings.
The cultural and educational infrastructure on the territory of the residential cluster will include: the Irina Viner-Usmanova rhythmic gymnastics center, the FIGHT NIGHTS martial arts school under the leadership of Kamil Gadzhiev, the school of design and technology - DATA (Design And Technology Art School), the fashion school of Valentin Yudashkin, a state comprehensive school and a kindergarten.
The project will be completed in the second quarter of 2022.
Russian Design District-winner of the Urban Awards 2020, RREF Awards 2020, winner of the VI Good Innovations competition.
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